1. Explain how arrival of colonists impacted the lives of Native Americans.
Driven off their land and wiped out by disease
2. How did the Pilgrims form a covenant community?
Formed Mayflower Compact agreeing to stick together on religious principles
3. What is the significance of Jamestown?
First permanent English colony in North America
4. What was the Virginia House of Burgesses?
The House of Burgesses was the first assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in
5. What was the major area of conflict between the Europeans and Native Americans?
6. Why were Africans brought to Jamestown in 1619?
7. What are cavaliers?
Aristocrats who supported the King of England
8. Define colonization.
When one country takes control of another territory
9. What were the major impacts of Europeans on the Native Americans?
Lost culture, loss of land, disease, introduction of Christianity
10. Describe the colonial economy in New England.
Shipbuilding, fishing, trade
11. Describe the colonial economy of the Middle Colonies (Breadbasket).
Agriculture (food), livestock, shipbuilding
12. Describe the colonial economy of the Southern Colonies.
Plantation system – tobacco and cotton
13. Describe the social characteristics of New England.
Religious roots - Puritans
14. Which colonial area was known for religious tolerance? What groups settled there?
Middle Colonies – William Penn and the Quakers
15. Which colonial area was known as Royalist and had the strongest ties to the Anglican Church?
16. What was the major cash crop of the Southern colonies?
17. Describe the system of mercantilism and the purpose of the Navigation Acts?
Mercantilism – colonies exist to provide resources for parent country
Navigation Acts – forced the colonies to purchase British goods
18. What was the Middle Passage?
19. What was The Enlightenment?
The use of reason and the scientific method to gain knowledge
20. What was the Great Awakening?
The revival of religion in the colonies
21. What were the causes/effects of The French and Indian War?
Cause: Britain and France fought over land in America
Effect: British and Colonists defeated French and Indians and took Frances land in America
22. What is the significance of the Proclamation of 1763?
After the F & I War, it regulated trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier
23. What was the main purpose of the Stamp Act? What was the effect?
Direct tax on colonial documents – designed to hit every colonist hard
Effect – led to protests in colonies and formation of the Sons of Liberty
24. What is the significance of the Boston Massacre?
Colonists killed by British soldiers is scuffle about loss of colonial jobs – source of propaganda
25. What is the significance of the Boston Tea Party?
Colonists dressed as Natives and dumped tea in Boston Harbor
Effect – led to British passing Intolerable Acts and punishing colonists – cause of War
26. What is the First Continental Congress?
Colonies sent delegates to discuss response to Intolerable Acts and to declare colonies rights
27. Who were the minutemen? What happened at Lexington and Concord?
Minutemen – Militia formed in the New England colonies
Lexington and Concord – first battles in American Revolution (“shot heard ‘round the world”)
28. When writing the Declaration of Independence, what ideas did Thomas Jefferson borrow from John
Locke? What did Richard Henry Lee introduce?
Locke – natural rights > “life, liberty and property (pursuit of happiness)” Lee: VA resolution for D of I
29. Who wrote Common Sense and why is it significant?
Thomas Paine – said independence was America’s destiny – spread like wildfire among colonists
30. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Continental Army and the British Army?
British – well trained, well equipped, more money and supplies
Colonists – new geography, fighting for freedom, help of French
31. What was the significance of each of the following battles?
Trenton: Washington crossing Delaware – much needed boost in morale
Saratoga: First major colonist victory – convinced French to support colonists
Yorktown: Cornwallis surrendered
32. What is the difference between Loyalists (Tories) and Patriots?
Tories – supported British Patriots - independence
33. What was Ben Franklin’s role in the Revolution?
Secured the alliance with France
34. What was a significant challenge facing the United States at the end of the American Revolution?
Forming a new government and the relationships of the new states
35. What kind of government did the Articles of Confederation create? What were its strengths and
Confederation – states would control most of their affairs
Strength: states were comfortable with ruling themselves and protecting own interests
Weaknesses: Congress couldn’t tax; money; couldn’t settle disputes between states
36. What was the Land Ordinance of 1785?
Congress sold western lands for settlement to raise money
37. What was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?
Creation of Northwest territory (Ohio River Valley)
38. Who wrote the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom? Significance?
Thomas Jefferson – set forth First Amendment rights (religion and separation of church and state)
39. Who wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights? Significance?
George Mason – influenced the Bill of Rights
40. Who is called the “Father of the Constitution”? What role did Washington play?
James Madison – principal author of Constitution – wrote Federalist Papers
41. What issue did Federalists and Anti-Federalists disagree most strongly over during the debates over
ratification of the Constitution?
Federalists – strong central government Anti-Federalists – strong state governments
42. What was the VA Plan, the NJ Plan, the 3/5 Compromise, the Great (CT) Compromise?
VA Plan – 2 houses based on state population
NJ Plan – 1 house with state having one vote
3/5 Compromise – slave counted as 3/5 person for population
Great Compromise – 2 houses (bicameral legislature) pop & equal rep
43. Why were the The Federalist Papers important in U.S. history?
Advocated the ratification of the Constitution
44. Why was the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution?
Appease Anti-Federalists and protect people’s rights from strong central government
45. Name some precedents that Washington set, which guided later presidents.
Created cabinet (not just Pres & VP)
46. Explain how the rise of political parties in the United States came about.
Hamilton – strong central gov’t
Jefferson – strong state gov’ts
47. What is the significance of the election of 1800?
Jefferson won election – wanted to minimize federal gov’t > more of a common man
48. Why was the Louisiana Purchase a difficult decision for President Thomas Jefferson to make?
Only tried to make a small purchase not $15mill – Napoleon willing to sell it all
49. What is the significance of Marbury v. Madison? McCulloch v. Maryland?
Marbury: created judicial review
McCulloch: Congress had “implied powers” not in Constitution
50. What was the result of the War of 1812?
Americans believed British hurting US trade – war ended with no settling of disputes
51. How did we acquire Florida?
Purchase from Spain
52. What is the Monroe Doctrine?
Kept American continent free of European colonization
53. Who invented the cotton gin and what is its significance?
Eli Whitney – made cotton king – expansion of plantations and slavery
54. Why did Americans move into Texas and what conflicts occurred there?
Mexico could not settle or control area
Texans ultimately wanted independence (Texas Revolution and Alamo)
Texas Annexation (1845)
55. What was the spoils system and who originated it?
Putting loyal people in office – Andrew Jackson
56. How did democracy expand during the Age of Jackson?
Jackson eased voting requirement to benefit his election
57. What was Jackson's policy toward the Native Americans?
Removal Act of 1830 – move tribes west (Manifest Destiny)
58. What was the Panic of 1837?
Jackson distrusted banks and vetoed renewal of National Bank – started run on banks
59. What is sectionalism?
Areas became concerned with local or regional issues instead of Federal issues
60. What advantage did the railroad have over canal travel?
Faster and not limited to natural waterways
61. How did the slogan “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight” come about and what does it refer to?
Polk’s slogan over latitude line in Oregon Territory – would go to war in order to expand.
62. How did Texas become part of the United States?
Texas Revolution (Alamo) and then Annexation
63. Explain the significance of the Missouri Compromise?
Maine admitted as free state and Missouri as slave to keep balance – LA Territory was split
64. What was the tariff of abominations and how did it relate to the nullification crisis?
Protective tariff passed to protect industry in Northern US
Nullification – caused Southerners to push for refusal to obey a federal law
65. What was the Gadsden Purchase?
Final acquisition of land in Continental U.S. (1853)
66. What is the significance of Manifest Destiny?
U.S. destiny to expand our lands to the Pacific – led to westward expansion of Native lands
67. What two issues dominated U.S. politics between 1820 and 1860?
Expansion & Slavery (Federalism)
68. What is popular sovereignty?
Idea that people are the source of all political power (state’s rights argument)
69. What were the terms of the Compromise of 1850?
CA became a free state and passed new fugitive slave laws
70. What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act? In effect, what did it repeal?
Created territories of Kansas and Nebraska – Repealed Missouri Compromise
71. Who wrote the anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin?
Harriet Beecher Stowe
72. Who helped over 300 slaves escape slavery in the south via the underground railroad? Who was Nat
Turner? Who was Gabriel Prosser?
Turner - slave who led rebellion in VA Prosser- literate slave who planned rebellion in Richmond
73. Who turned to violence in the fight over slavery and took part in the “Pottawatomie Massacre” and
the “raid on Harpers Ferry”?
John Brown – abolitionists killed settlers in Kansas (Bleeding Kansas) & raided armory in W.V.
74. What was the major aim of the Free-Soil Party?
Opposed the extension of slavery
75. Explain the Dred Scott decision and its significance.
Slaves don’t have rights of citizens – Congress couldn’t tell states what to do
76. What is the significance of the Lincoln-Douglas debates?
Made Lincoln a national figure – advocated end to slavery (not equality)
77. What event was the immediate cause for the secession of several states in 1860?
Lincoln won election without a majority of any Southern state
78. What were the causes of the Civil War?
Federalism; protective tariffs; slavery
79. What were the advantages of the North? The South?
North: factories (supplies), weapons, people
South: money (cotton), generals, motivation
80. Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired?
Fort Sumpter, SC
81. What is the significance of Bull Run? Antietam? Gettysburg?
Bull Run: 1st major conflict; won by South (Stonewall Jackson)
Antietam: bloodiest single day battle
Gettysburg: 3-day battle considered turning point of war
82. What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?
Freed slaves in Southern states – gave people moral ground to fight war
83. What was Lincoln’s primary goal at the outset of the Civil War?
Preserve the Union
84. Who was the Union general who led the famous march to the sea from Atlanta to Savannah?
85. On April 9, 1865, where did Lee surrender to Grant?
Appomattox Courthouse, VA
86. During Reconstruction, what happened to the power of the federal government?
Expanded power of Federal government over the states
87. Describe Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan.
South never officially seceded – put Union back as fast and peacefully as possible
88. What are the effects of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments?
13th: Abolished slavery
14th: Equal protection of laws
15th: Right to vote to all races
89. What prohibitions did black codes set up?
Denied blacks in South civil liberties
90. Why did westward movement intensify after the Civil War?
Railroads, cattle industry, land
91. What is the Homestead Act?
Offered 160 acres of land to head of household
92. Describe the “real cowboy”.
Hard life working sun up till sundown - cattle drives
93. When and why did Reconstruction end?
Compromise of 1877 – Radical Republicans lost interest – couldn’t change morals of South
94. What were poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses?
Poll tax – pay to vote Literacy test – must read
Grandfather Clauses – if father could vote, you could vote
95. What were Jim Crow laws?
Ways to continue segregation in the South
96. What was sharecropping?
Farmed the land, but forced to give a share of the crop to the owner – never got ahead
97. What did WEB DuBois and Booker T. Washington believe?
DuBois: education meaningless without equality
Washington: Af. Am. Needed to show their value in the labor market
98. Who is Ida B. Wells?
Anti-lynching crusader and women’s rights advocate
99. What is the significance of Plessy v. Ferguson?
Permitted segregation > “separate but equal” doctrine
100. What is the Bessemer process?
New way of making steel – led to construction of skyscrapers
101. Who is Thomas Edison and what contributions did he make?
Light bulb and distribution of electrical power
102. Who is Alexander Graham Bell and what contributions did he make?
Invented the telephone
103. Who is Henry Ford and what contributions did he make?
Model T – revolutionized automobile industry and the assembly line process
104. Who are the Wright Brothers and what contributions did they make?
First to fly an airplane
105. What was the goal of the Interstate Commerce Act?
Regulated RR industry and monopolies
106. What does laissez-faire mean?
Government should keeps its hands off the economy
107. Why was Andrew Carnegie such a successful businessman?
Steel industry giant – used vertical and horizontal integration to create monopoly
108. Who was John D. Rockefeller?
Merged oil companies into Standard Oil Company (monopoly)
109. Who was J.P. Morgan?
Investment banker who organized large trust companies in the banking industry
110. Who was Cornelius Vanderbilt?
Giant in the railroad industry
111. What was the Sherman Antitrust Act?
Regulated monopolies and made illegal to form trusts that interfered with free trade
112. What was collective bargaining used for?
Strategy for gaining rights for workers
113. Who are the Knights of Labor?
Largest labor union in America that fought for shorter work days and more pay
114. Who is Samuel Gompers and what is the AFL?
Labor union leader who founded the American Federation of Labor for skilled workers
115. Who is Eugene Debs?
Union leader who ran for President as a Socialist
116. Describe the Haymarket Affair.
3,000 workers united in Chicago to support striking workers – turned violent (bombs)
117. What was the Homestead Strike?
Strike against Carnegie steel – one of most dispute in U.S. History
118. What was the Pullman Strike?
Strike between labor unions and railroads
119. Who were scabs?
Workers who worked during a strike (immigrants)
120. What kind of support did labor unions have in the late 1800s?
Received little support from the Federal government or the Courts
121. Why did most immigrants come to America?
Escape hardship; new opportunities; religious persecution
122. What was Ellis Island? Angel Island?
Immigration processing centers – Ellis (NY) - Angel (SF)
123. What were the requirements to pass through Ellis Island?
No disease; not a felon; capable of working
124. What was the Chinese Exclusion Act?
Closed the door on Chinese immigrants
125. What is a tenement?
Substandard, multi-family urban dwelling
126. What is urbanization?
Movement of people to the cities
127. What is patronage? What was the Gilded Age?
Rewarding individuals for their political support Gilded Age – post Civil War rapid econ. growth
128. What was the Progressive Movement concerned with? (Goals)
Protect social welfare; promote moral improvement; economic reform; foster efficiency
129. What are the 16th and the 17th Amendments?
16th: income tax
17th: popular election of senators
130. What is initiative, referendum, recall, and primary elections?
Referendum: people vote on initiative; Initiative: bill originated by people
Recall – people could remove politicians; Primary: select candidate for party
131. Who are muckrakers? Who is Upton Sinclair and what did he expose in The Jungle?
Journalist who wrote about corrupt side of business. Jungle: Meatpacking industry
132. What was the 19th Amendment?
133. Why did the US want to build a canal across Panama?
Shorter trade route for commercial and military ships
134. What is the Open Door Policy?
All nations would share trading rights with China
135. Describe U.S. imperialism in Hawaii and the Philippines.
Hawaii: U.S. supported revolution to overthrow Queen Liliukulani and put in Stanford Dole
Philippines: Gained from Spanish-American War > Philippine-American War followed
136. What is the significance of the Spanish-American War?
Cuban Independence & U.S. acquired Puerto Rico, Guam and Philippines
137. What is dollar diplomacy?
Efforts of U.S. in to further aims using economic power (loans) in Latin America and Asia
138. What were the causes of World War I?
Nationalism; Imperialism; Militarism; Alliances; Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
139. What was US foreign policy at the outset of WWI?
140. Why did the US get involved in WWI? What was the overt act?
Strong economic ties to Allies; Sinking of Lusitania; Zimmerman Note was overt act
141. Describe conditions in the US at home, during WWI.
Mass Production; Propaganda; The Great Migration; Women entered workforce
142. What did Wilson’s Fourteen Points call for?
No secret alliances; free trade; self-determination; league of nations
143. What was the purpose of the League of Nations?
Settle disputes between nations and promote peace
144. What was adopted in the Treaty of Versailles?
German reparations and War Guilt clause – created league of nations
145. What contributed to the stock market crash of 1929?
Overpriced stocks; buying stock on margin; too much speculation; panic
146. What caused the Great Depression?
Overproduction; buying on credit; wealth gap; no trade with Europe; no regulation of banks and
147. What was the impact of the Great Depression?
25% unemployment – loss of everything – distrust of economy and banks – emotional damage
148. What was the New Deal? What is the WPA, AAA, FDIC?
FDR’s policies to alleviate depression
WPA – Works Progress Admin. – created 8 mill jobs
AAA – Agri. Adust. Acts – tried to increase crop prices
FDIC- Federal Deposit Ins. Corp – insure bank deposits and regulate banks
149. What problems were farmers having during the Depression?
Couldn’t pay dept. – crop prices were too low (overproduction)
150. What was the purpose of the Social Security Act?
Old-age insurance; unemployment Compensation; dependent children / disabled
151. Who did Germany invade in 1939 to start WWII?
Poland - Blizkrieg
152. What were Cash and Carry and Lend-Lease?
Cash and Carry – sold goods to Allies
Lend-Lease – way of supporting the Allies when they couldn’t pay
153. What were the significant events in the European theatre of the war?
Stalingrad – turning point in Russia
D-Day – invasion of Normandy, France
Battle of the Bulge – last German offensive
154. What were the significant events in the Pacific theatre of the war?
Pearl Harbor; Midway Island – turning point
Island Hopping (MacArthur’s strategy); Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Atomic Bomb)
155. What were the contributions of African Americans?
Most served supporting role > wanted to fight > Tuskegee Airmen
156. What were the contributions of the Navajo?
Navajo Code Talkers – unbreakable code
157. What were the contributions of women?
Worked in factories (Rosie the Riveter) > joined military in non-combat roles
158. How were the Japanese Nisei treated?
Over 100,00 American-born Japanese were placed in “internment” camps (concentration camps)
159. What is Koramatsu v. U.S.?
Said executive order of Japanese into camps was constitutional to protect national interests
160. Describe the stages of the Holocaust.
Nuremburg laws – Ghettos – Labor Camps – “Final Solution” (Death Camps)
161. What was the purpose of the Nuremberg Tribunal?
Prosecute Nazi war criminals
162. What is the U.N.?
International organization to set international law, security, economic development, social progress,
human rights, and achievement of world peace.
163. What was the Cold War?
Conflict between U.S. (West) and USSR (East) over Communism vs. Democracy
164. What was the significance of the Truman Doctrine? The Marshall Plan?
Truman: aid to Turkey and Greece to promote democracy
Marshall: aid to any country in need > aimed to stop spread of Communism
165. What happened in China in 1949? Why was the Korean War fought?
Mao Zedong founded People’s Republic of China
Korean War: N. Korea invaded S. Korea – U.S. aided to fight spread of communism
166. Why was NATO formed?
Alliance between Western European countries and U.S. for mutual support in military conflict
167. Who was Senator Joseph McCarthy?
Made widespread accusations against Communist sympathizers
168. Who is Alger Hiss? The Rosenbergs?
Convicted spies during the Cold War
169. Who is Jonas Salk?
Developed polio vaccine
170. Who is John Foster Dulles? What is brinkmanship?
Dulles: Sect. State advocated strong stance against communism
Brinkmanship: Threatening to use nuclear strike if necessary
171. What is the significance of Brown v. Board of Education?
Officially ended “separate but equal” doctrine > separate is inherently unequal
172. Why kind of protest did Martin Luther King, Jr. advocate?
173. Who is Thurgood Marshall? Oliver Hill?
Civil Rights attorneys > Marshall was first African American on U.S. Supreme Court
174. What is the significance of the 1963 March on Washington?
United 250,000 people > “I have a dream” speech
175. What is the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
Outlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women
176. What is the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
Outlawed discriminatory voting practices
177. What was the Bay of Pigs invasion? The Cuban Missile Crisis?
Pigs: U.S. supported exiled Cubans attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro
Cuban Missile: Showdown over presence of nuclear weapons in Cuba
178. What is the significance of the Vietnam War?
U.S. tried to stop spread of communism, but lost support of U.S. people in process
179. What is détente?
General easing of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1970s
180. What is Watergate?
Political scandal in 1970s resulting from the break-in of the Democratic National Committee
headquarters at the Watergate office complex > Nixon admin was implicated > Nixon resigned
181. What is affirmative action? What is the Bakke Case?
Giving employment and enrollment opportunities to groups who suffered discrimination
Bakke: Affirmative action is unconstitutional > race can be a factor
182. What is glasnost? Perestroika? Who is Mikhail Gorbachev?
Glasnost: openness and transparency in political process (USSR)
Perestroika: Soviet policy of restructuring political and economic system
Gorbachev: last head of state of USSR
183. Who is Sandra Day O’Connor? Sally Ride?
O’Connor: 1st female member of Supreme Court
Ride: 1st American female to enter space
184. What are some examples of major changes in technological advances?
Cable TV / 24 hour news; personal computers; internet; cellular phones