1. During the Renaissance, humanism contributed least to which of the following?



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1. During the Renaissance, humanism contributed LEAST to which of the following?
(A) Popularization of medieval legends

(B) Renewed interest in original Greek and Roman manuscripts

(C) Development of modern national languages

(D) Promotion of liberal arts education

(E) Refinements in social manners and personal habits
2. “A prince should have only one end and one idea in mind, take only one subject for study, and it is war, its science and discipline; for it is the only science that deals with the ruler’s problems. . . . [Success in war] not only maintains those born to princedoms but often causes men of private origin to rise to that rank. .. . The first cause of losing power is the neglect of this art; the cause of winning power lies in its mastery.”
In writing the passage above, Machiavelli drew on his observations of
(A) feudal warfare in medieval Europe

(B) warfare among the Italian city-states

(C) sixteenth-century religious wars

(D) warfare among the European colonial powers

(E) warfare during the Crusades
3. Which of the following resulted from the English Reformation?
(A) Immediate wholesale persecution of Catholics in England

(B) Establishment of the English monarch as head of the Church of England

(C) The pope’s naming of Henry VIII as “Defender of the Faith”

(D) Papal recognition of the English church as independent, but still affiliated with

Rome

(E) A revolt by members of the English aristocracy opposed to the Reformation



4. In the period from Columbus’s discovery of the Americas to the American Revolution all of the following goods were imported from the New World to Europe in large quantities EXCEPT
(A) sugar (B) gold (C) iron ore (D) furs (E) tobacco

5. Eighteenth-century popularizers of the seventeenth-century scientific revolution would have most likely agreed with which of the following statements?


(A) God intervenes actively in the universe’s operation.

(B) Understanding the natural order is beyond human comprehension.

(C) Humans are imperfect and wicked by nature.

(D) Underlying natural laws govern society.

(E) Respect for tradition ensures human progress.

6. The Council of Trent (1545-1563) was the major body through which


(A) Spain strengthened its position against the Turks

(B) the house of Hapsburg gained control over Italy

(C) the Roman Catholic church reformed itself

(D) European states entered into economic cooperation

(E) Puritans and Catholics were reconciled
7. Which of the following is NOT true of the Edict of Nantes (1598)?
(A) It was issued by Henry IV of France.

(B) It allowed the practice of Protestantism in France.

(C) It was responsible for the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre.

(D) It was revoked by Louis XIV.

(E) It was accepted by the French Huguenots.

8. The Dutch Republic rose to prominence in seventeenth-century Europe because of which of the following factors?


(A) Its agricultural innovations

(B) Its military strength

(C) Its literary creativity

(D) Its religious unity

(E) Its shipping and commerce
9. The revolt against France’s increasingly centralized monarchy in 1648-1652 is generally known as
(A) the Mazarinade

(B) Colbertism

(C) the Fronde

(D) the seige of La Rochelle

(E) the Pazzi Conspiracy
10. Which of the following is true about the rulers of both Austria and Prussia during the seventeenth century?
(A) They patterned their society after that of the Ottoman Empire.

(B) They succeeded in avoiding war for most of the century.

(C) They created centralized, unified nation-states.

(D) They abolished serfdom.

(E) They maintained permanent standing armies.
11. Which of the following was a persistent cause of agitation and protests by the Parisian lower classes in the eighteenth century?
(A) Efforts to reimpose the guild system

(B) Bourgeois demands for a greater voice in government

(C) Lavish displays of wealth by the clergy

(D) Frustration of artisans’ attempts to organize into unions

(E) Substantial increases in the cost of bread

12. Which of the following had the largest population in 1763?


(A) France

(B) Sweden

(C) England
(D) Austria

(E) Spain

13. “Sincerely influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, this monarch abolished capital punishment, established equality before the law, freed the serfs, created a system of primary education, established religious toleration, and tightened the control of the state over the established church.”
The enlightened despot described above was
(A) Catherine the Great of Russia

(B) Joseph II of Austria

(C) Maria Theresa of Austria

(D) Frederick the Great of Prussia

(E) Charles III of Spain

14.The primary goal of France in entering the Thirty Years’ War was to


(A) defend Catholicism against German Protestants

(B) reduce the power of the Hapsburgs

(C) punish the Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus

(D) conquer Brandenburg-Prussia

(E) place a Bourbon on the Spanish throne

15. Which of the following is true of Frederick William I, king of Prussia from 1713-1740?


(A) He lived lavishly off the taxes that his bureaucracy collected.

(B) He built a first-rate army and infused Prussian society with military values.

(C) He refused to employ commoners in his bureaucracy.

(D) He recruited tall soldiers from all of Europe to fight in his frequent wars.

(E) He encouraged the development of local self-government.
16. A major revolutionary ideal spread throughout Europe by the French armies during the Revolutionary and the Napoleonic periods was that


  1. careers should be open to talented individuals from all classes

  2. workers have the right to form labor unions and bargain collectively

  3. every individual is entitled to a free, public education

  4. private property should be abolished

  5. the aged and the infirm should have the right to public support

17. During 1793-1794, Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety owed much of their influence to the support of


(A) Catholics angered by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

(B) liberal nobles eager to promote economic progress

(C) a group of small property owners and wage laborers in Paris who were concerned about high food prices

(D) industrial workers in Paris and Lyon who were angry about conditions in the newly opened cotton mills

(E) provincial middle-class businessmen concerned about excessive centralization of government
18. The Peace of Utrecht (1713-1714) altered the balance of power in Europe by
(A) checking French expansion

(B) decreasing Austrian territorial holdings

(C) decreasing England’s colonial empire

(D) granting sovereignty over Belgium to the Netherlands

(E) granting independence to Spain’s New World colonies



  1. “His enthusiasm for scientific method, his belief that everything could be reduced to mathematical terms, and his insistence on systematic doubt of all earlier theories left a profound mark on the thinking of scientists in the next two centuries.

The passage above is a description of the work of


(A) Francis Bacon

(B) Tycho Brahe

(C) Isaac Newton

(D) Renê Descartes

(E) Baruch Spinoza

20. Which of the following is true of Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)?


(A) He led the French church in opposition to the monarchy.

(B) He expelled the Huguenots from France.

(C) He strengthened the intendant method of local government.

(D) He effectively abolished the sale of offices and tax farming in France.

(E) He supported the French nobility against the monarchy.

21. Which of the following best describes the Christian humanism of Erasmus?


(A) A complete break with Roman Catholic theology

(B) A defense of individual interpretation of the Bible

(C) The application of Renaissance scholarship to questions of ecclesiastical and moral reform

(D) A return to the Scholastic theology of Thomas Aquinas

(E) A plea for a return to monasticism as the highest Christian calling

Questions 22-23 refer to the following document.


The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly;

Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.

22. This document records an oath of unity taken by members of the
(A) English Parliament in their opposition to Charles I, thus marking the beginning of the Puritan revolt

(B) English Parliament in their opposition to James II, thus marking the beginning of the Glorious Revolution

(C) First Continental Congress in their opposition to George III, thus marking the beginning of the American Revolutionary War

(D) French Estates General in opposition to Louis XVI, thus marking the beginning of the French Revolution

(E) French legislative assembly in response to the defeat of Napoleon 1, thus marking the restoration of the French monarchy

23. This agreement is commonly known as the


(A) Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

(B) Oath of Supremacy

(C) Carlsbad Decrees

(D) Tennis Court Oath

(E) Petition of Right

24. All of the following were factors in the spread of literacy during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries EXCEPT


(A) the invention of printing

(B) the Protestant Reformation

(C) the rise of state bureaucracies

(D) an increase in compulsory state education

(E) a decline in the use of Latin
25. Johannes Kepler improved on Copernicus’ theories by
(A) introducing the concept of heliocentrism

(B) demonstrating the laws of gravitational attraction

(C) initially questioning the theory of crystalline spheres

(D) demonstrating that planets have elliptical orbits

(E) charting the epicycles of the planets
26. One policy Peter the Great used to make Russia a great power was to
(A) decrease the tax burden on his poorer subjects

(B) build a new capital where his nobles and merchants were obliged to settle

(C) abolish serfdom

(D) encourage national pride by urging his subjects to retain traditional dress and customs

(E) introduce military conscription for all adult males
27. The principal reason England reverted to a monarchical form of government following the Interregnum of Oliver Cromwell lay in Cromwell’s
(A) ineffective mercantilist policy

(B) inability to establish broad popular support for his government

(C) inability to impose religious uniformity

(D) ineffective foreign policy

(E) inability to control dissidents in the army

28. Louis XIV did which of the following to provide better protection for himself and to reduce the influence of the Paris mob?


(A) Built the Bastille.

(B) Introduced religious instruction in the Parisian public schools.

(C) Moved the government from Paris to Versailles.

(D) Increased the number of soldiers stationed in Paris.

(E) Banned further internal migration from the countryside into Paris.

29. Renaissance humanism is primarily defined as


(A) a curriculum based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history

(B) an antireligious program dedicated to the destruction of the Church

(C) an artistic style that portrayed the depraved state of human beings

(D) a philosophical movement that emphasized the beauty of nature

(E) a religious movement that attempted to make Christianity relevant to daily experience
30. The Roman Catholic Council of Trent (1545-1563) had as its primary result
(A) a compromise with Protestants to reunite Christians

(B) a political compromise with the Protestant princes of central Europe

(C) reform within the Catholic church and reaffirmation of Catholic doctrine

(D) the firm reestablishment of conciliar power over the papacy

(E) creation of a balance of power between the papacy and the heads of the great Catholic states
31. Family relations in western Europe in the period 1500-1750 were generally similar to modern ones in that
(A) the core of the family was nuclear

(B) the legal power of the father over the family steadily declined

(C) divorce on the basis of irreconcilable differences increased dramatically

(D) family chapels, directed by fathers, dominated community services

(E) children left home and established separate households soon after puberty
32. A major difference between Calvinism and Lutheranism relates to
(A) clerical marriage

(B) the place of women in society

(C) emphasis on predestination

(D) infant baptism

(E) monasticism

33. In the eighteenth century, the effectiveness of the Russian monarchy was limited by




  1. the enormous land area of the country

  2. the independent position of the Orthodox church

  3. a united, rebellious nobility

  4. a prosperous middle class located in fortified towns

  5. a newly free class of former serfs

34. Hobbes and Rousseau would have agreed that


(A) a monarch has absolute power

(B) the state is based on a social contract

(C) the state of nature is peaceful and harmonious

(D) political authority should be shared by the monarch and representatives of the people

(E) citizens have a right to revolt
35. Which of the following best characterizes eighteenth-century France just prior to the Revolution of 1789 ?
(A) The economic status of the peasantry was improving dramatically.

(B) The aristocracy’s power had eroded completely.

(C) The privileges of the clergy were declining.

(D) The French monarchy was experiencing a deepening financial crisis.

(E) The participation of the bourgeoisie in legislative affairs was increasing dramatically.
36. The ability of relatively small European forces to conquer the powerful Aztec and Incan empires can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT
(A) lack of immunity to European diseases among Aztec and Incan peoples

(B) superior European military technology

(C) ineffective defenses of Aztec and Incan cities

(D) indigenous people’s lack of familiarity with horses

(E) successful European missionary activity

37. Advocates of northern humanism believed which of the following?


(A) The fusion of Christian and Classical ideals provides the best definition of virtuous conduct.

(B) The conventions of romantic love enhance social respect for women.

(C) Education and scholarship should be equally open to men and women.

(D) The new poetic forms, such as the sonnet, could be used to articulate their beliefs.

(E) Political rights should be extended to all men.

38. The great scientific discoveries of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries led European scholars to believe that


(A) everything in nature and society operated in ways similar to those of a living organism

(B) the universe was orderly and operated according to fixed rules

(C) religious tradition formed the basis for all scientific truths and assumptions

(D) the experimental method was an unreliable vehicle for scientific inquiry

(E) only that which could be seen and examined was real

39. By the late seventeenth century, witchcraft trials and executions had declined in western Europe in part because of


(A) popular uprisings and peasant resistance against persecution

(B) growing feminist protest against persecution

(C) official church rejection of the concept of witches

(D) increased disbelief among elites in the concept of witches

(E) a declining number of women practicing midwifery
40. Which of the following is an accurate characterization of England in the period 1688-1715 ?
(A) A Puritan theocracy

(B) An absolute monarchy

(C) A democracy practicing religious toleration

(D) A merchant republic increasingly under Dutch dominance

(E) A constitutional monarchy controlled by an aristocratic oligarchy
41. In addition to the conquest of the last Muslim outpost in Spain at Granada and Columbus’ voyage to the Americas, which of the following occurred in 1492?
(A) Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon.

(B) Portugal was united with Spain.

(C) The Spanish defeated the Turks at Lepanto.

(D) The plague broke out in Spain.

(E) The Jewish population was expelled from Spain.
42. The Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV of France did which of the following?
(A) Recognized the rights of French Protestants.

(B) Made public the king’s conversion to Roman Catholicism.

(C) Settled the Bourbons on the French throne.

(D) Ordered the Spanish out of France.

(E) Announced French entry into the war between the Spanish and the Dutch.
43. The individual who first provided mathematical formulas supporting the Copernican theory and explaining planetary motion was
(A) Galileo Galilei

(B) Isaac Newton

(C) Tycho Brahe

(D) René Descartes

(E) Johannes Kepler

44. Which of the following was a major characteristic of the English monarchy in the eighteenth century?


(A) A return to its “divine right” position of the seventeenth century

(B) A steadily widening discrepancy between its theoretical and its real powers

(C) Its growth in power because of its many victories over the French

(D) Its refusal to support the emerging cabinet system

(E) Its growing wealth due to effective taxation policies
45. In 1713 Emperor Charles VI sought approval of the Pragmatic Sanction in order to guarantee the
(A) indivisibility of the Hapsburgs’ lands

(B) borders between Holland and the Austrian Netherlands

(C) dynastic union of the Hapsburgs and the Romanovs

(D) succession of the Bourbons to the Spanish throne

(E) succession of the English throne Hanover family to the

46. Which of the following pairs of European rulers is generally identified as “enlightened” monarchs?


(A) Anne of England and Louis XV

(B) Joseph II and Catherine the Great

(C) Frederick William I and George III

(D) Elizabeth I and Mary Stuart

(E) Peter the Great and Catherine de Médicis
47.The political strength of the Medici family in Florence was initially based on
(A) a close alliance with the papacy

(B) the influence and wealth of their bank

(C) the support of the lower classes

(D) the support of a powerful citizen militia

(E) their tenure in various municipal offices

48. Martin Luther’s response to the German Peasants’ War of 1524-1525 demonstrated his


(A) ignorance of the economic plight of the peasantry

(B) emphasis on the social aspects of Christ’s teaching

(C) refusal to comment on social or political issues

(D) belief in the necessity of a unified German

(E) support of the prevailing social and political order
49. The eighteenth-century Enlightenment philosophes were primarily concerned with
(A) the advancement of theological and metaphysical knowledge

(B) the setting of limits on the human ability to change

(C) pure skepticism and the negation of reason

(D) mystical sciences such as numerology and astrology

(E) critical and inquiring approaches to knowledge
50. The leading economic center of early seventeenth century Europe was:

(A) Rome


(B) Amsterdam

(C) London



(D) Prague

(E) Hamburg


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