1 Democracy and American Politics  Multiple-Choice Questions



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1
Democracy and American Politics

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. What is the central idea of democracy?
a. Minorities have the full power of decision making over all matters that affect them.

b. Rule by the majority must prevail, even if majority tyranny is the result.

c. Ordinary people want to rule themselves and are capable of doing so.

d. Policy is determined by tyranny of the majority.

e. Majority rule violates minority rights.
Answer: c

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
2. Rule by the people that is exercised in open assemblies is synonymous with which of the following?
a. the Framer’s view of democracy

b. modern democracy

c. indirect democracy

d. the ancient Greeks’ view of democracy

e. representative democracy
Answer: d

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
3. Which of the following is true according to the principle of popular sovereignty?
a. Power should be exercised by an educated elite.

b. The ultimate source of authority rests with the people.

c. A democratic system is based on the concept of material equality.

d. Majority rule is unacceptable because it leads to tyranny.

e. Minority rule trumps majority power in close elections.
Answer: b

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
4. What does political equality mean?
a. Each person carries the same weight in voting and other political decision making.

b. The opinions and preferences of citizens are combined into a binding decision through the principle of majority rule.

c. Protection will be provided for basic freedoms essential to the formation and expression of the popular will and its translation into policy.

d. The will of the majority is not to be the ultimate determinant of what government does.

e. Each person should have the same opportunities to succeed in society.
Answer: a

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
5. Civil rights are a combination of which of the following?
a. popularity sovereignty and majority rule

b. equal treatment and majority rule

c. political equality and equal treatment

d. majority rule and political liberty

e. civil liberties and equality
Answer: c

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
6. Which of the following refers to basic freedoms essential to the formation and expression of majority opinion and its translation into public policies?
a. tyranny of the majority

b. majority rules

c. political equality

d. popular sovereignty

e. political liberty
Answer: e

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
7. Under which circumstance is political equality violated?
a. if citizens are free to argue and debate

b. if citizens are free to form and express their political opinions

c. if some people can speak out but others cannot

d. if the voice of the people is welcomed

e. if people are encouraged to participate in politics
Answer: c

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
8. The suppression of the rights and liberties of a minority by the majority is which of the following?
a. majority tyranny

b. liberal democracy

c. representative democracy

d. self-government

e. social contract
Answer: a

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
9. According to Figure 1.1, The Analytical Framework, which of the following is a political linkage factor?
a. constitutional rules

b. Congress

c. political parties

d. waging war

e. making laws
Answer: c

Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Works

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
10. The framework presented in this chapter to understand American politics is a set of interrelated actors and influences that operate in which of the following interconnected realms?
a. institutions, interests, and citizens

b. the media, the courts, and the internecine political institutions

c. composition, opposition, and despotism

d. structural, political linkages, and governmental sectors

e. skill, fortune, and opportunity
Answer: d

Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Works

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
11. What did Jim Crow laws represent?
a. the official system of integration in the South

b. the voter registration system in the South that frequently disenfranchised blacks

c. the official system of segregation in the South

d. the official social contract used in the South

e. the institution of slavery
Answer: c

Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Works

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
12. According to Figure 1.1, The Analytical Framework, which of the following would be considered government factors?
a. what government does

b. Congress, the president, the federal bureaucracy, and the Supreme Court

c. those enduring features of American life that influence which issues are important

d. using democracy as an evaluative standard without using values or opinions

e. all political actors, institutions, and processes that transmit the wants and demands of people and groups in our society to government officials
Answer: b

Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Works

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
13. Political actors, institutions, and processes that transmit the demands of the people are known as which of the following?
a. political linkage factors

b. government actions

c. tyrannical abuses of power

d. media-driven social anxiety

e. government factors
Answer: a

Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Works

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
14. According to Figure 1.1, The Analytical Framework, which of the following is an example of a political linkage-level actor or influence?
a. Congress

b. the Constitution

c. waging war

d. interest groups

e. lawmaking
Answer: d

Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Works

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
15. What constitutes government action?
a. public officials that have formal, legal responsibility in making policy

b. political actors that do not hold official public office

c. institutions that transmit preferences to elected officials

d. what issues become important in politics and government

e. what government does
Answer: e

Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Works

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
16. Political linkages are particularly suited to which of the following?
a. communicating the most fundamental and enduring factors that influence politics

b. transmitting the desires of people to representatives in government

c. overseeing the policymaking activities of Congress and the presidency

d. acting on behalf of the government

e. influencing the distribution of income and wealth in society
Answer: b

Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Works

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
17. Which of the following serves as an indicator of a mostly anti-government moment in American history?
a. Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal

b. the “Occupy Wall Street” movement

c. the focus of Congress and President Obama in 2011 and 2012 on the problem of budget deficits

d. FEMA’s response to Hurricane Katrina

e. September 11, 2001
Answer: c

Page Reference: p. 21

A-head: Does Government Work?

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.3

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
18. Which of the following democracies would most likely be favored by Aristotle, Jefferson, Rousseau, and Dahl?
a. a democracy with a large difference between the rich and the poor

b. a democracy with a large and educated ruling class where political power is concentrated

c. a democracy with a small difference between the rich and the poor

d. a democracy with a large and educated ruling class where economic power is concentrated

e. a democracy with a small and educated ruling class where political and economic power is concentrated
Answer: c

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government
19. Freedom of speech, religion, association, and the press are examples of which of the following?
a. civil rights

b. state mandates

c. nonexclusionary rights

d. political liberties

e. absolute equalities
Answer: d

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government
20. With regard to the 1965 Voting Rights Act, which of the following is best classified as a political linkage factor?
a. the growing electoral power of African Americans outside the South

b. the Supreme Court, which was becoming increasingly supportive of civil rights

c. the rules established by the Constitution

d. President Johnson and his support of civil rights

e. Jim Crow laws
Answer: a

Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Works

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government
21. Representative democracy best describes government in which of the following?
a. ancient Greece

b. eighteenth-century Europe

c. the United States

d. North Korea

e. New England town hall meetings
Answer: c

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government
22. Which of the following would be considered a free election?
a. one in which voters directly select policy

b. one in which each major party has a viable candidate

c. one in which election rules favor the incumbent party

d. one in which the costs of the campaign were paid for with public funds

e. one in which there is no coercion of voters or election officials
Answer: e

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government
23. Some people claim that the media increasingly peddles ideologically biased political news. If this is true, which of the following necessary conditions for popular sovereignty is jeopardized?
a. that government policies reflect the wishes of the people

b. that government leaders are selected in competitive elections

c. that elections are free and fair

d. that high-quality information is available

e. that the majority rules
Answer: d

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Analyze It

Topic: Introduction to American Government
24. Why do some political thinkers believe that democracy is superior to other forms of government?
a. because it encourages dreams that can never be achieved

b. because it is incapable of promoting progress on important decisions

c. because it protects human rights

d. because it is found only in the United States

e. because it subverts the views of the masses
Answer: c

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Analyze It

Topic: Introduction to American Government
25. After the 2008 presidential election, the news media frequently presented standard geographic maps of the United States that were intended to summarize the election results. These maps typically had states won by Barack Obama colored blue, while states won by John McCain were colored red. What might be a misleading factor observed on the standard maps?
a. The maps overemphasize the partisan divide in the United States.

b. The maps do not take into account population density within each state.

c. The maps exaggerate the diversity of voters within each state.

d. The maps make appropriate adjustments for the size of a state’s population

e. The maps emphasize people over geographical space.
Answer: b

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Analyze It

Topic: Introduction to American Government
26. Why is participation in the political process an important condition of popular sovereignty?
a. Participation conveys the will of the people.

b. Participation prevents leaders from being responsible to the public.

c. Participation helps to ensure that the public is well-informed about policy issues.

d. Participation protects the public from overly responsive political leaders.

e. Participation overcomes political apathy and political efficacy.
Answer: a

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Analyze It

Topic: Introduction to American Government
27. Why is it important for democratic citizens to have high-quality information?
a. High-quality information ensures that public opinion will coalesce around public policy solutions that are agreeable to most Americans.

b. High-quality information is a prerequisite for voting in most states.

c. Political leaders respond only to informed public opinion, and the public cannot be informed without high-quality information.

d. High-quality information enables the formation of political opinions that are consistent with one’s values and interests.

e. The media relies on high-quality information to keep politicians honest.
Answer: d

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Analyze It

Topic: Introduction to American Government
28. Why is direct democracy untenable in the United States?
a. It exudes socialism.

b. It yields inferior policy results.

c. The U.S. population is too heavily concentrated on the East Coast.

d. The U.S. population is too homogeneous.

e. The U.S. population is too large.
Answer: e

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Analyze It

Topic: Introduction to American Government

True-False Questions

29. It is safe to say that most people do not want to live in places where there is no government to speak of at all.
Answer: TRUE

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
30. Most people around the world prefer to be governed by benevolent military regimes.
Answer: FALSE

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
31. A monarchy includes rule by the one.
Answer: TRUE

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
32. To the ancient Greeks, democracy meant rule by the common people exercised directly in open assemblies.
Answer: TRUE

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
33. Some political commentators argue that the participatory aspects of direct democracy are not worth preserving as an ideal.
Answer: FALSE

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
34. After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, some Muslim Americans became targets of popular hostility. This is an example of majority tyranny.
Answer: TRUE

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

35. If __________ are to be useful as a way to keep government leaders responsive and responsible, they must be conducted in a fashion that is free and fair.
Answer: elections

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
36. The form of political decision making in which policies are decided on the basis of what a majority of the people want is known as __________.
Answer: majority rule

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
37. The most obvious sign of popular sovereignty is the existence of a close correspondence between what __________ does and what the people want it to do.
Answer: government

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
38. Taken together, political equality and equal treatment are sometimes called __________.
Answer: civil rights

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
39. Philosopher John Locke thought that individual rights and liberties were so fundamental to the good society that their preservation was the central responsibility of any legitimate government and that their protection was the very reason people agreed to enter into a __________ to form government in the first place.
Answer: social contract

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
40. Essential political liberties including the freedoms of speech, of conscience and religion, of the press, and of assembly and association are embodied in the __________ Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Answer: First

Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government

Short Answer Questions

41. Describe the central idea of democracy. What elements account for this idea’s widespread popularity around the world?
Answer: An ideal response will:

1. Identify the central idea of democracy as that people want and are capable of ruling themselves.

2. Discuss how democracy’s widespread popularity can be explained by its protection of human rights and recognition of intrinsic worth of human beings and equality. Democracy is also most likely to produce rational policies because of the pooled knowledge of society. Others note that democracies are more stable than other forms of government, that democracies are more likely to promote economic growth, and that democracies best allow free people to develop their natural talents.
Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
42. What are the three fundamental benchmarks of a healthy representative democracy? Provide a supporting element of each benchmark.
Answer: An ideal response will:

1. Identify popular sovereignty, whereby the people are the ultimate source of government’s authority. This involves leaders being elected in competitive elections that are free and fair, people participating in the political process, availability of high-quality information, majority rule, policies that reflect the will of the people, and effective government policies.

2. List political equality, which might include examples such as the 14th amendment and civil rights.

3. Describe political liberty, which involves basic freedoms such as free speech, association, and conscience that are necessary for the formation and expression of majority opinion and how this affects public policies.


Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
43. How does majority tyranny threaten political liberty? What is a recent example?
Answer: An ideal response will:

1. Discuss how the majority has the potential to tyrannize the rights of the minority. This was a concern of James Madison and other Founders.

2. Provide a recent example, such as Americans being hostile towards Muslims after 9/11or the disapproval of immigrants by Americans who believe these individuals are taking away jobs.
Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government

44. In what type of situation would you recommend direct democracy over representative democracy? Why? Give an example.


Answer: An ideal response will:

1. Note that direct democracy requires that people are able to meet regularly to discuss issues.

2. Discuss how direct democracy may be more appropriate in small communities, areas such as New England towns where participation is encouraged, and schools and local communities. It is more likely that these citizens can meet regularly, and also be reasonably informed on issues.
Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government

45. Are the low levels of voter turnout in American elections an indication that popular sovereignty does not really exist in the United States? Why or why not?


Answer: An ideal response will:

1. Indicate that the idea behind popular sovereignty is that the power resides with the people.

2. Explain how low levels of turnout undermine popular sovereignty because many people do not vote. Accordingly, power may be in the hands of the few, rather than the many.

3. Discuss how despite these limitations, other forms of participation—joining groups, working on campaigns, participating in protests—might increase popular sovereignty.


Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Analyze It

Topic: Introduction to American Government

46. In the text’s “Using the Framework” feature, which political linkage do you think proved most influential in overcoming Southern resistance to political participation by African Americans before the Voting Rights Act of 1965? Why?


Answer: An ideal response will:

1. List the political linkages such as the votes of African Americans in states outside the South, civil rights demonstrations, changes in public opinion and a sympathetic mass media, and unions and businesses favoring voting rights legislation.

2. Indicate which linkage was likely most important. For example, changing public opinion was critical in overcoming resistance to the civil rights movement. Also critical was the moral power of the movement and leaders like Martin Luther King.
Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Work

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Analyze It

Topic: Introduction to American Government

Essay Questions

47. Describe the extent to which citizens are the ultimate source of government authority in the United States by explaining the seven conditions related to popular sovereignty.
Answer: An ideal response will:

1. Note that popular sovereignty refers to the notion that the people are the ultimate source of government authority. This results in policies that reflect the wants of the people.

2. Detail that government leaders should be selected in competitive elections where politicians and challengers face the voters.

3. Explain that elections should be free and fair; there should be no coercion and the rules should not favor some candidates over others.

4. Indicate how people can participate in the political process. This could involve voting, contacting public officials, or joining associations.

5. Observe that the availability of high-quality information is needed for people to form authentic and rational attitudes about public policies and political leaders.

6. Reveal that the majority should rule, whereby government adopts policies that most people want.

7. Indicate that government policies should reflect the wishes of the people.

8. Explain that government policies should be effective. That is, they should adequately address problems.
Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Topic: Introduction to American Government
48. If you were to debate critics of liberal democracy, how would you respond to their most common criticisms?
Answer: An ideal response will:

1. Note that critics of liberal democracy argue that the majority can threaten liberty, that the people are irrational and incompetent, and that majoritarian democracy threatens minorities.

2. Indicate that despite these concerns, liberal democracies are better than alternatives.

3. Provide a response to each of the contentions of critics. For example, while critics note that the majority can threaten the liberty of the minority, the alternative is minority tyranny, which would mean that the minority tyrannizes over the majority. Moreover, there is limited evidence that the majority consistently tyrannizes over the minority. Alternatives to liberal democracies would not protect minorities to a greater extent.

4. Discuss how despite claims that the people are irrational and incompetent, there is evidence that the public is more informed, sophisticated, and stable than has been asserted.
Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government
49. In your opinion, is representative democracy or direct democracy preferable? Based on your answers, what changes would you make to the American political system?
Answer: An ideal response will:

1. Distinguish between representative and direct democracies. In a representative democracy, the people select leaders who make policies, whereas in a direct democracy, the people meet to discuss issues of the day and to make policy.

2. Argue the advantages of the chosen democracy. For example, if arguing that representative democracy is preferable, the answer would note that direct democracy is not feasible in a largely populated country. Further, if citizens are not well-informed and participation rates are low, this will undermine popular sovereignty that direct democracy espouses to promote. If arguing in favor of direct democracy, the answer should discuss how this form of democracy increases popular sovereignty because it allows the people to discuss and decide on issues.

3. Describe how the American political system might benefit from encouraging direct democracy at the state or local level, but representative democracy is preferable nationally.


Page Reference: pp. 5–17

A-head: Democracy

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.1

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Topic: Introduction to American Government
50. Examine the government’s response to the BP Gulf oil spill using the analytical framework provided in your textbook.
Answer: An ideal response will:

1. Discuss the structural framework as it applies to the BP Gulf oil spill. For example, the public may have shifted from concerns over cheap oil to concerns about the environment or the economic impact of the spill to businesses affected by the spill. On the other hand, the spill affected conservative states that may have had greater concern for economic issues than environmental protection.

2. Describe the political linkage framework as it applies to the BP Gulf oil spill. The public, environmental interests, the oil and gas industry, and the media all played prominent roles during the spill and afterwards. For example, the issue received an enormous amount of coverage in the media.

3. Explain the government framework as it applies to the BP Gulf oil spill. Congress, the president, and the courts all had important roles following the spill. For example, Congress has the ability to appropriate funds for clean-up.



4. Discuss the government action framework as it applies to the BP Gulf oil spill. The Obama administration implemented temporary restrictions on new drilling permits following the disaster. Following numerous lawsuits, BP will pay substantial fines and compensatory damages to those affected by the spill.
Page Reference: pp. 17–20

A-head: A Framework for Understanding How American Politics Work

Learning Objective: Greenberg L.O. 1.2

Skill Level: Analyze It

Topic: Introduction to American Government


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