Many monasteries arose that were centers of missionary activity.
Men like Brandon (died c. 580) and Columba (died c. 597) evangelized the northern coasts of Scotland and the western city if Iona.
700 A.D. Celtic Christianity had stopped its growth and began to decline. This marks the dawn of a new age called the Middle Ages or the age of intellectual consolidation
The Caliphate, and Islamic region, continued to see the growth of the Islamic nation, but was finally halted by the Moors in Spain in the final decade of the fifteenth century and the defeat of the Islamic armies outside Vienna in 1523.
Event that was catastrophic for the history of the united church
Over the wording and theological ideas surrounding the filioque clause in the Nicene creed (that the Spirit proceeded from both the Father and the Son, and not just the Father) the Greek church broke away from the western Church.
36.The Catholic Church (the one true church) and the Orthodox church (now claiming the right to being the one true church) broke apart and was never united again.
Tension was so great at this time that there was little, if any, theological interaction from that time forward between the Western church and the Eastern theologians who broke away.
53.In such influences it is said that Luther hatched the egg that Erasmus laid.
54.Key theological developments that took place within the framework of the Middle Ages.
First, there was the consolidation of the Patristic Heritage.
55.Secondly, the exploration of the role of reason in theology took a turn to systematize and expand what Christian theology was all about. Here one finds the theory of method emerging, and the term “apologetics” born.
56.Thirdly, there was the increasing development of theological systems as a whole emerging. These were deemed by scholastics as “cathedrals of the mind.”
57.Fourthly, sacramental theology also grew, as well as,
59.Sixthly, and very importantly, a return to the original sources had begun (ad fontes) in order to think and write critically on the source documents of a given text.
60.Seventhly, there came about, as a result of the ad fontes trend, a critique of the Vulgate translation of the Bible (the Latin vulgate was a translation done of the Bible, and of the apocryphal books by Jerome, and used heavily by the Roman Church).
Two notations are of importance:
1) The controversy over images, or the iconoclastic controversy raged from 725-742.
Emperor Leo III (c. 717-742) decided to destroy all images and icons because he thought they were barriers to the conversion of the Jews and of Muslims.
62.Some theologians fought to return these images to help in a devotee’s faith (men like Gregory Palamas (c. 1296-1359).
63.Others wanted the images destroyed believing it to be sacrilege to erase the Creator/creature distinction in that God could be “seen” and a violation of the 2nd commandment.