1. Approximately, how far did Ibn Battuta travel in his lifetime?



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Windows on the Past
1. Approximately, how far did Ibn Battuta travel in his lifetime?

a. 20 000 km

b. 60 000 km

c. 100 000 km

d. 120 000 km
2. Ibn Battuta was offended at Abu Muhammad Yandakan's house because his

a. host insulted him.

b. host's wife was from another clan.

c. host's wife sat on the bed with another man.

d. host's wife ignored Ibn Battuta.
3. The Sultan of Mali followed traditions that meant he

a. was never seen by his people.

b. never spoke directly to his people.

c. never gave audiences.

d. lived simply, without ostentation.
4. In order to show the Sultan great respect, the people of Mali would prostrate themselves and

a. throw dust on themselves.

b. make a gesture of respect with their hands.

c. throw water on themselves.

d. wail loudly.
5. The "horses of the river" that Ibn Battuta saw were, in fact,

a. crocodiles.

b. hippopotamuses.

c. elephants.

d. large fish.
Time Line
1. Which of the following events took place first?

a. Timbuktu is founded.

b. The Nok create sculpture.

c. The Songhai kingdom expands.

d. Mansa Musa becomes ruler of the Mali kingdom.
2. Which of the following events took place last?

a. The Moroccan army defeats the Songhai.

b. Benin is a powerful West African kingdom.

c. The building of Great Zimbabwe begins.

d. The Portuguese establish control of the East African coast.
3. Which of the following events took place first?

a. The slave trade ends.

b. The Portuguese establish control of the East African coast.

c. The Nok create sculpture.

d. Timbuktu is founded.
4. Which of the following events took place first?

a. The Axum kingdom rules in Ethiopia.

b. The Songhai kingdom expands.

c. The European slave trade grows in Africa.

d. The building of Great Zimbabwe begins.

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5. Which of the following events took place last?

a. The Axum kingdom rules in Ethiopia.

b. The Moroccan army defeats the Songhai.

c. The Portuguese establish control of the East African coast.

d. Benin is a powerful West African kingdom.


6. Which of the following events took place last?

a. The Nok create sculpture.

b. Timbuktu is founded.

c. The building of Great Zimbabwe begins.

d. Mansa Musa is the ruler of Mali.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. In terms of geographic features, Africa contains the greatest percentage of the world's

a. steppes.

b. deserts.

c. forests.

d. swamps.
2. Originally, the Sahara was a region of

a. grasslands.

b. forests.

c. desert.

d. swamps.
3. The semi-dry region to the south of the Sahara is called the

a. Kalahari.

b. Savannah.

c. Sahel.

d. Congo.
4. Most of the soils found in Africa are

a. sandy.

b. rich in nutrients.

c. easy to farm.

d. poor in nutrients.
5. The linguistic group which expanded across central and southern Africa is

a. Afro-Asiatic.

b. Bantu.

c. Nilo-Saharan.

d. Khosian.
6. The social unit that serves as the basis for African village groups is the

a. married couple.

b. tribe.

c. clan.


d. band.
7. Most African villages had houses built of

a. stone.

b. brick.

c. wood.


d. mud-wattle.
8. The system in which goods are exchanged without money is called

a. swapping.

b. barter.

c. currency.

d. trade.

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9. An ancient African belief system is

a. animism.

b. spirituality.

c. Buddhism.

d. Islam.


10. In traditional African culture, most village leaders were chosen for their abilities as

a. warriors.

b. spiritual guides.

c. farmers.

d. administrators.
11. An exorcism is a ceremony held to

a. name a child.

b. ask for divine assistance.

c. bless crops.

d. drive out a spirit.
12. African music is generally based on

a. harmony.

b. melody.

c. rhythm.

d. polyphony.
13. African drums, besides being used for music, are also used for

a. carrying goods.

b. communication.

c. seating.

d. exorcisms.
14. The most important form of artistic expression practiced across Africa is

a. singing.

b. painting.

c. dancing.

d. architecture.
15. One grain developed in Africa is

a. oats.


b. sorghum.

c. rice.


d. corn.
16. The animal which made trade across the Sahara possible is the

a. ox.


b. horse.

c. camel.

d. goat.
17. A trade item that was not used by caravans crossing the Sahara was

a. gold.


b. salt.

c. horses.

d. cattle.
18. Most caravans crossed the Sahara in about

a. 30 days.

b. 80 days.

c. three months.

d. six months.

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19. In the mining town of Taghaza, buildings were made of

a. salt.

b. palm fronds.

c. brick.

d. mud-wattle.


20. In Africa, south of the Sahara, salt was

a. cheap.

b. plentiful.

c. worth its weight in gold.

d. of no interest as a trade item.
21. Which of the following was not a concern for travellers journeying across the Sahara?

a. sandstorms

b. water shortages

c. desert nomads

d. Arab bandits
22. In crossing the Sahara in caravans, gold was carried in

a. big sacks.

b. small wallets.

c. quills.

d. brass tubes.
23. The exchange of gold and salt was

a. a noisy affair.

b. done in broad daylight.

c. known as the "silent trade."

d. done by a set rate of exchange.
24. The earliest of the Sudan kingdoms was the

a. Ghana.

b. Mali.

c. Songhai.

d. Mandinka.
25. Which ruler of Mali, who attracted many Muslim scholars, is considered the most important?

a. Ibn Battuta

b. Mansa Musa

c. Sunni Ali

d. Askid Muhammad
26. Under the Sudan kingdoms

a. cities were small and poor.

b. cities were wealthy and sophisticated.

c. trade was unimportant.

d. most people were engaged in trade.
27. Both Mansa Musa and Askid Muhammad

a. made a pilgrimage to Mecca.

b. were interested in developing agriculture.

c. banned Islam from their kingdoms.

d. were uninterested in trade.
28. The Songhai kingdom came to an end when it was conquered by

a. Ghanaians.

b. Moroccans.

c. the Almoravids

d. Egyptians.

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29. The Saharan trade eventually died out when

a. Europeans began trading along the coast.

b. the Ottomans conquered North Africa.

c. the Tuareg closed the caravan routes.

d. the supply of gold ran out.


30. The primary crop in West Africa was

a. rice.


b. potatoes.

c. yams.


d. millet.
31. Which of the following crops also had trade value?

a. petroleum and nickel

b. flax and hemp

c. cotton and linseed

d. palm oil and kola nuts
32. The kingdoms of the Guinea Coast were

a. founded by the Dutch.

b. founded by the Portuguese.

c. mostly small city-states until the eleventh century.

d. founded around the seventh century.
33. The Ife and Benin peoples were noted for their

a. wood sculptures.

b. rock paintings.

c. work in bronze.

d. large stone fortresses.
34. In their dealings with the Portuguese, the people of Benin were

a. ignorant and easy to cheat.

b. honest and fair.

c. devious.

d. unwilling to barter.
35. Which of the following is not true of African attitudes to slavery? A slave

a. could buy his freedom.

b. became a member of his owner's clan.

c. remained in this social position for life.

d. could rise to a position of wealth and power.
36. West African society was severely damaged when

a. Europeans demanded more slaves than could be provided.

b. European diseases spread as epidemics.

c. Europeans demanded more gold than could be provided.

d. the Portuguese conquered Benin.
37. East African trade routes

a. were based on camel caravans.

b. followed coastal trails.

c. followed river routes inland.

d. were based on maritime routes.
38. After the fifth century, East African trade was controlled by the

a. Malaysians.

b. Indians.

c. Arabs.

d. Kenyans.

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39. The European nation which tried to take over the East African trade about 1500 was

a. Holland.

b. Portugal.

c. Spain.

d. France.


40. The response of the East African traders to foreign control was to

a. trade eagerly with newcomers.

b. attempt to kill all the Europeans.

c. adopt a policy of non-cooperation.

d. teach the Europeans all they knew.
41. As a result of the East African traders' response to foreign control, trade

a. increased.

b. remained constant.

c. declined slightly.

d. collapsed.
42. The kingdom that ruled Ethiopia before the coming of Islam was the

a. Agau.


b. Nubia.

c. Axum.


d. Zimbabwe.
43. Unlike most cultures in East Africa, the Ethiopians were

a. Christians.

b. Animists.

c. Muslims.

d. Buddhists.
44. The Ethiopians built distinctive stone

a. mosques.

b. churches.

c. forts.

d. pillars.
45. In the sixteenth century, Ethiopia was nearly conquered by the

a. Muslims.

b. Egyptians.

c. Portuguese.

d. Arabs.
46. The group that infiltrated Ethiopia in the mid-sixteenth century was the

a. Agua.


b. Galla.

c. Sudanese.

d. Kenyans.
47. A crop not grown by the Bantu peoples of southern Africa was

a. yams.


b. taro root.

c. rice.


d. bananas.
48. The kings who ruled the Shona people

a. were secluded from ordinary people.

b. were elected by a tribal council.

c. lived among their people.

d. also acted as priests.

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49. The vast complex, Great Zimbabwe, was built of

a. wood.

b. stone blocks.

c. brick.

d. concrete.


50. Zimbabwe culture collapsed about 1450. Two likely explanations put forward by historians are that

a. the rulers were corrupt, and the culture was overrun by the Shona.

b. the kings lost touch with the people, and the people immigrated to other states.

c. religious warfare broke out, and a famine killed all survivors.

d. the population grew too large for the land to support, and there was an extended drought.
Short Answer Questions
1. Describe four ways in which geography of Africa affected the history of its peoples, including how they lived.
2. Discuss the importance of trans-Saharan trade to African history.
3. Compare and contrast African and European attitudes towards slavery. Provide two ways in which they were similar and two ways in which they were different.
4. Discuss the three main developments of trade in East Africa.
5. Provide three reasons why so many African kingdoms did not last very long.
6. Discuss how European contact after the fifteenth century negatively affected African culture.
Skills Questions

Use the copy of Figure 12-1 provided to answer the following questions.


1. Locate the Sahara Desert. What is its highest elevation? What is its lowest elevation?
2. Name the highest mountain peak in Africa.
3. What is the approximate latitude of

a. the eastern terminus of the Congo River

b. the Ethiopian Highlands

c. the fork of the Nile River

d. the Kalahari Desert
4. Between approximately which longitudes does the Congo Basin lie?
5. If 1ø of latitude/longitude = 111 kilometres, approximately how long is Africa (north to south)? How wide is Africa (east to west)?

Use the primary source provided to answer the following questions.


6. Approximately what percentage of slaves died on the Middle Passage?

a. 15%


b. 25%

c. 30%


d. 50%
7. Describe two aspects of the slaves' diet.
8. According to one witness, how much space did each slave get on board ship?

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9. Describe two of the effects that the heat had on the slaves.


10. How do you know that this account is sympathetic to the plight of African slaves? Give two pieces of evidence.

Use the copy of Figure 12-12 provided to answer the following questions.


11. Provide two reasons why oases were important for settlers.
12. Provide two reasons why oases would be important for travellers.
13. How would the advantages to travellers benefit the settlers? Give three examples.

(c) 1999 Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ANSWER KEY FOR TEST - UNTITLED
Windows on the Past
1. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 1


2. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 2


3. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 3


4. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 4


5. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 5


Time Line
1. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 1


2. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 2


3. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 3


4. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 4


5. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 5


6. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 6


Multiple Choice Questions
1. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 1


2. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 2


3. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 3


4. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 4


5. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 5


6. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 6


7. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 7

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8. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 8


9. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 9


10. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 10


11. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 11


12. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 12


13. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 13


14. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 14


15. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 15


16. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 16


17. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 17


18. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 18


19. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 19


20. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 20


21. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 21


22. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 22


23. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 23


24. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 24


25. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 25


26. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 26


27. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 27


28. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 28

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29. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 29


30. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 30


31. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 31


32. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 32


33. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 33


34. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 34


35. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 35


36. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 36


37. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 37


38. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 38


39. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 39


40. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 40


41. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 41


42. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 42


43. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 43


44. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 44


45. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 45


46. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 46


47. c

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 47


48. a

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 48


49. b

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 49

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50. d

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 50


Short Answer Questions
1. Africa is a vast continent with diverse physical, climatic, and vegetation regions. Near the coastline, rapids and waterfalls on major rivers make it difficult to travel inland from the coast. The interior peoples developed independently from the peoples of the coastal areas. Trade was a more important part of the lifestyle of coastal peoples than of those in the interior. Different cultures, including language and religion, evolved from these regional differences. Agricultural practices were also affected by regional differences. There were nomadic herders in the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions, and in the drier parts of southern Africa; shifting cultivators of West Africa; and crop farmers in East Africa and in the wetter parts of southern Africa.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 1


2. Trade across the Sahara was an important factor in the development of West African society. Though the desert was a great obstacle to trade a network, the Tuareg nomads, the introduction of the camel, and a chain of oasis settlements en route helped to foster the trade of salt, gold, horses, and slaves, which were the most frequently traded items. Nations such as the Sudan, Morocco, and the (Muslim) Maghrib developed and grew as a result of these trading activities.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 2


3. While slavery was a part of traditional life in Africa, the European focus was more commercial. African slaves, like those of the Romans, were usually prisoners of war. Like Europeans, Africans considered slaves to be unpaid labourers who could be bought and sold. Unlike Europeans, who considered slaves to be possessions or property, with no chance of freedom or elevation in status, African slaves became low-status members of their owner's clan. They were able to buy their freedom, rise to a position of power or wealth, and even marry into their new clan.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 3


4. East Africa's early trading network was established before Roman times and was an extensive ocean trading system along the whole eastern coastline. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, the trade was taken over by the Arabs and Persians, who extended the trading region further south and adding gold to the trade items (in the fifteenth century). The Portuguese tapped into a well-established maritime trading network which included Arabia, Persia, India, China, and Indonesia. They imposed strict controls on trade, which strangled the established free trade network, leading to a policy of passive resistance by the local inhabitants. By the end of the sixteenth century, there was very little trading done.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 4


5. African kingdoms did not last long for a variety of reasons. First, there were very few clear rules of succession, and wars that followed the death of a ruler often led to new families claiming power. Second, living in a marginal environment meant constant drought and famine, often leading to the collapse of a kingdom. Third, there were numerous rival kingdoms struggling to take over neighbouring territory.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 5


6. European contact had several negative impacts on African culture. Because Europeans kept their trade to maritime regions, old north-south and east-west contacts were disrupted. Europeans fostered the demand for slaves, leading coastal peoples to raid interior regions. As well, the demand for new cash crops disturbed traditional agricultural patterns, and the restrictions on trade led to a decline in established trading networks.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 6


Skills Questions
1. The highest elevation of the Sahara Desert is over 2000 metres. The lowest elevation is below sea level.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 1

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2. Mt. Kilmanjaro (5895 metres) is the highest peak in Africa.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 2


3. The approximate latitude of:

a) eastern mouth of Congo River: 5ø S.

b) Ethiopian Highlands: 5ø N.

c) Fork of Nile River: 15ø N.

d) Kalahari Desert: 25ø S.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 3


4. The Congo Basin lies between about 5ø N and 5ø S.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 4


5. North to south, Africa is approximately 8500 kilometres. East to west, it is approximately 7500 kilometres.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 5


6. 30%

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 6


7. poor food (stale corn mush) and insufficient water

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 7


8. about as much space as someone would have in a coffin

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 8


9. fainting and death

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 9


10. The account includes quotes from sympathetic witnesses and does not disguise the terrible conditions of the slaves, which would incriminate those who ran the slave trade.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 10


11.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 11


12.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 12


13.

Chapter:12 QUESTION: 13



(c) 1999 Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc. All rights reserved.


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