|Alden Thompson, “1 and 2 Chronicles,” in Doug Clark and John Brunt, eds., Introducing the Bible, Vol. 1: The Old Testament and Intertestamental Literature (Lanham, New York, Oxford: University Press of America, 1997), 501-12 [on-line version slightly revised, June 2002].
1 and 2 CHRONICLES
"Let me fall into the hand of the LORD for his mercy is very great." – 1 Chr 21:13
For many ordinary readers of the Bible, Chronicles conjures up visions of tedium: nine chapters of genealogies right up front is just too much. So a recent commentator has a candid suggestion for first-time readers: "Start at 1 Chronicles 10 and simply leave out the lists until you feel you are ready for them."1
That suggestion of "leaving out" the lists offers an ironic link with the title of the book(s) in the old Greek and Latin Bibles: Paralipomenon, (The Books) "of the things left out," left out of Samuel-Kings, that is, implying that Chronicles was simply a supplement to Samuel-Kings.
But Chronicles is much more than just a collection of stories not told in Samuel and Kings. Though the narrative portions focus on the same time period as covered in Samuel-Kings, the author produces a masterful retelling of Israel's history, a sermon about the goodness of God, a message of hope for a discouraged, post-exilic people.
In comparison with Samuel-Kings, the Chronicler achieves his more buoyant emphasis, in part, by dropping out the bad news and adding to the good. He omits, for example, the sordid aspects of the lives of David and Solomon. But he also adds good news stories like the report of Hezekiah's great passover feast and the record of King Manasseh's repentance. Thus, in contrast with the somber emphasis on sin and judgment in Kings, Chronicles highlights God's willingness to extend a helping hand to a people who had stumbled so often that they wondered if God still cared. The Chronicler's resounding response: "Yes, he cares."
After the initial genealogies in chapters 1-9, Chronicles focuses on the monarchy, with heavy emphasis on the reigns of David and Solomon. But in a sense, his story reveals less about the history of the monarchy than it does about his view of conditions in post-exilic Jerusalem after the rebuilding of the temple.
The author ends his narrative with the destruction of Jerusalem (587/86 B.C.E.), giving no details of the Babylonian captivity except that the exiles were "servants" to the king of Babylon and his sons until the restoration under the Persians (2 Chr 36:20). The last verses in 2 Chr 36 mention Cyrus's edict calling for the rebuilding of the temple and the return of the exiles (2 Chr 36:22-23). But the book as we have it would have been composed much later in the post-exilic experience, since the genealogies, in one instance at least (1 Chr 3:17-24), extend five generations after Zerubbabel, the leader who brought the first group of returnees to Jerusalem in 536 B.C.E.
Given the potentially discouraging conditions in Jerusalem in the Chronicler's day, he turns up the volume on his praises of Jerusalem and its temple, thus compensating for the gloomier reality of the Jerusalem he actually knew by personal experience. In Scripture the more direct knowledge of post-exilic conditions in Jerusalem is found in the historical descriptions of Ezra and Nehemiah and in the prophetic words of Malachi. Though the match with conditions in the Chronicler's day may not be precise, these books do describe the circumstances in post-exilic Jerusalem that can help us understand the Chronicler's concerns as he retold the history of God's people.
The two books known as 1 and 2 Chronicles in our English Bibles were originally one book in Hebrew. But the division into two was characteristic of the Greek Bible (Septuagint = LXX) and has been typical of Hebrew Bibles since the 15th century.
In Hebrew, Chronicles carries the simple title, "things of the days," suggesting something like "annals." The LXX and the Latin (Vulgate) Bibles use a title derived from Greek, "Paralipomenon," meaning "[the books] of the things left out," a reference to the fact that Chronicles includes much that is "left out" of the parallel accounts in Samuel-Kings. The alert reader will also discover, of course, that Chronicles not only adds to, but also omits much that is found in Samuel-Kings.
Jerome (d. 420), though retaining the traditional Paralipomenon as the formal title for Chronicles, pointed towards our current English title when he described the contents of Chronicles with the Latinized Greek word chronicon in his preface to Samuel-Kings. Luther's title in his German Bible (1524), Die Chronik, was also influential in determining the current English usage.
Discussions of the composition of Chronicles inevitably involve its relationship with Ezra-Nehemiah. Historically the events of Ezra-Nehemiah follow those recorded in Chronicles and the close historical linkage is reinforced by the fact that the final words of Chronicles appear as the initial words of Ezra (2 Chr 36:22-23//Ezra 1:1-3a). But that remarkable overlapping has proven more tantalizing than convincing when it comes to theorizing about the relationship between the books. While some still favor a common origin if not a common author for the books, the current trend is to see Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah as separate compositions by separate authors on the basis of their differing emphases: Chronicles, for example, is enamored with the house of David, Ezra-Nehemiah is not; Chronicles is also more willing to include all the tribes of Israel within the worshiping community, while Ezra-Nehemiah is more protective, excluding those of foreign parentage or of mixed religion.
As for the composition of Chronicles itself, a key point of discussion involves the relationship between the initial genealogies (1 Chr 1-9) and the remainder of the book (1 Chr 10 - 2 Chr 36). Some scholars have conjectured that several stages and several editions of the book preceded its present canonical form, with the genealogies being a later addition. But a strong argument for unity has been made on the basis of the numerous points of contact between the genealogies and the narrative.2 If the genealogies are seen as integral to the author's purpose, they can then be useful in determining the date of composition.
The reference to the establishment of Persian rule in 2 Chr 36:20 sets the earliest possible date for the completed book at 539 B.C.E. Citation of the LXX version of Chronicles about 150 B.C.E. by Eupolemus and the use of 2 Chr 35-36 in the (Greek) apocryphal book of 1 Esdras, also dating from the second century B.C.E., suggest a date no later than 200 B.C.E., since sufficient time would have been needed for the Hebrew original to circulate and be translated into Greek.
From the narrative sections of Chronicles itself, two pieces of evidence help define the limits within which the book can be dated. First, in describing donations to the temple in the days of David, 1 Chr 29:7 uses the term darics, a Persian coin first issued in 515 B.C.E. under Darius 1.3 Enough time must be allowed for such an anachronism to become "natural" for the author. The other piece of evidence comes from 2 Chr 16:9 where the clause, "The eyes of the Lord range throughout the entire earth" (NRSV), seems to be a citation from Zech 4:10. Since the prophet Zechariah was active while the temple was being rebuilt (ca. 520-515 B.C.E.), enough time must again be allowed for his words to become authoritative and quotable.
While these modest clues from the narrative section would suggest a date well into the fifth century, a reference in the genealogies, 1 Chr 3:17-24, would push the date later yet. In listing the descendants of King Jeconiah (Jehoiachin), who was taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar in 597 B.C.E., the Hebrew text indicates five generations after Zerubbabel. The LXX, however (followed by the NRSV), interprets the five names of 3:21, not as siblings and contemporaries as in the Hebrew, but as lineal descendants, resulting in a list of ten generations instead of five. On the assumption that the author brought the list down to his own day, Klein estimates that Chronicles could have been written between 400 and 350 B.C.E if the Hebrew text is correct, but closer to 250 B.C.E. if the LXX is correct.4
Chronicles tells us much about the author's interests, loves and fears. But such knowledge is only indirect, mediated through the contents of his book. We have no specific knowledge of him as a person. We may surmise that he lived in or near Jerusalem and was a devout supporter of the temple and its services. If one recognizes a sharp distinction between the ministering priests and the assisting Levites, then the author may have been a Levite rather than a priest, since he seems to have taken special care to give the Levites their place in the temple services.
Jewish tradition identified the author as Ezra, a view that has received some scholarly support in this century. Though the so-called Ezra Memoir (Ezra 7-10) and Chronicles do share certain similarities of language, significant differences in content and emphasis make the argument less convincing.5 Fortunately, knowing the author's name is not necessary for understanding the book. In typical Old Testament fashion, he was more concerned that his message be heard than that his name be known.
At first glance, Chronicles looks like just another history book. But a comparison with the parallels in Samuel-Kings suggests that "sermon" would be a better title than "history." Actually, that is the case for all biblical "history," for the Bible never gives us history for history's sake, but history shaped for theological and practical purposes, history told and retold for the purpose of leading God's people to a deeper appreciation of His character and will.
But however obvious or subtle the didactic element may be in other biblical books, Chronicles has to be the most exuberant example in the Old Testament of "historical" narrative written for the purpose of giving glory to God. Because the "text" for the Chronicler's sermon was the canonical books of Samuel-Kings, his method has been described in terms of Jewish "midrash," that is, creative and expansive commentary on an authoritative biblical text. But it has also been given the more sober label of "exegesis," the straightforward exposition of Scripture.6 From a broader perspective, one could say that the Chronicler is writing theology, perhaps even a theodicy, justifying God and his ways to his people.7
The Chronicler's knowledge of Scripture is by no means limited to Samuel-Kings. The genealogies reveal ties with Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Joshua, and Ruth; Psalms 96, 105, and 106 are cited In 1 Chr 16; allusions to Isaiah (2 Chr 28:16-21), Jeremiah (2 Chr 36:21), and Zechariah (2 Chr 16:9) indicate familiarity with the so-called Latter Prophets.8
The author uses his other biblical sources to enrich his exposition of Samuel-Kings, augmenting them with his own compositions and with material drawn from non-biblical sources. In recent years interest in how the Chronicler used his sources has won an increasing share in discussions formerly dominated by questions of historicity. Though opinions on historicity still vary widely, scholars representing a variety of perspectives are now able to make common cause in exploring the author's purpose, and in ways that were not possible when the agenda focused more exclusively on origins and historicity.
In comparison with Samuel-Kings, the kinds of materials added by the Chronicler are worth noting: genealogical lists (1 Chr 1-9), lists of Levitical temple ministrants (1 Chr 23-26), and numerous prayers and speeches by royal and prophetic figures. New narrative materials include additional references and expanded comment on prophetic figures (Shemaiah, Azariah, Hanani, Jehu ben Hanani, Jehaziel, Eliezer, Elijah, Zechariah, Oded, Jeremiah); reports of royal building activity during the reigns of good kings or the positive part of the reigns of those with a mixed record (Rehoboam, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Jotham, Hezekiah, Uzziah, Manasseh); and descriptions of successful wars by obedient kings (Abijah, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Uzziah, Jotham).9
Both the Chronicler's creativity and his dependence on Samuel-Kings are illustrated by the way he cites his sources. Typically, he links prophetic names with those sources not explicitly identified in Samuel-Kings: Samuel, Nathan, and Gad (1 Chr 29:29); Nathan, Ahijah and Iddo (2 Chr 9:29); Shemaiah and Iddo (2 Chr 12:15); Iddo (2 Chr 13:22); Jehu the son of Hanani (2 Chr 20:34); Isaiah the son of Amoz (2 Chr 26:22; 32:32). Interestingly enough, with the exception of 1 Chr 29:29, each of these source citations appears in precisely the same place in the Chronicler's narrative as it does in Samuel-Kings. But in each case, the Chronicler re-labels the sources with the names of prophets. Of special interest is 1 Chr 29:29, the passage with no parallel in Samuel-Kings, for the Chronicler actually links "the records of the seer Samuel" (NRSV) with the acts of King David, even though Samuel died before David took office. And Klein's comment about the reference to Solomon in 2 Chr 9:29 is worth quoting: "The source reference at the end of Solomon's reign (2 Chr 9:29) refers to three ‘prophetic’ records instead of the `the book of the acts of Solomon' of 1 Kgs 11:41, even though all the materials in 2 Chr 1-9 are drawn from 1 Kgs 1-11, with no evidence for information from additional sources."10
We may conclude, then, that the Chronicler's manner of adding prophetic names where they are absent from Samuel-Kings implies that his prophetic sources may not have been separate sources at all, but simply were embedded in the sacred text which he had before him. Confirming that possibility is 2 Chr 32:32 which describes Hezekiah's acts as being recorded in the "vision" of Isaiah "in the Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel." In short, the prophetic word is in the "official" record; indeed, the "official" record is the prophetic word. Thus the Chronicler is already reflecting the tendency to label history as prophecy, the same impulse that gave the canonical label of "Former Prophets" to the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings.
Outline of 1 and 2 Chronicles with chapter references.
I. Genealogies: Adam to Persian Restoration................................................................... 1-9
II. The Reign of David............................................................................................. ......10-29
I. The Reign of Solomon............................................................................................... .....1-9
II. From Rehoboam to the Exile...................................................................................... 10-36
Survey of Contents
Chronicles begins where the world begins: Adam is the first name in nine chapters of genealogies (1 Chr 1-9). From Adam, the lists extend through the house of Saul. And at that point, the narrative begins with a brief glimpse at the tragic figure of Israel's first king. The Chronicler skips over thirty chapters of 1 Samuel, saying nothing of Samuel's ministry, Saul's reign, or the years of intrigue and high tension between David and Saul. His narrative begins with the story of Saul's death (1 Chr 10//1 Sam 31), a chapter that concludes with the Chronicler's comment that because Saul had disobeyed the Lord, "the LORD put him to death and turned the kingdom over to David son of Jesse" (1 Chr 10:14, NRSV).
Chapter 11 opens with David's coronation at Hebron (1 Chr 11:1//2 Sam 5:1). But again the Chronicler has omitted the ugly incidents in 2 Sam 1-4 that detail David's rise to power over the house of Saul. Then, as in 2 Samuel, David brings the ark to Jerusalem, learning how to do it right after Uzzah was struck down. The Chronicler sharply abbreviates the angry dialogue with Michal over David's dancing, but adds the list of Levites who saved the day (1 Chr 15) and expands the narrative with long quotes from Ps 105 and Ps 96 and a short one from Ps 106 (1 Chr 16).
For two chapters the Chronicler follows 2 Samuel in telling how God established David's throne (1 Chr 17-18//2 Sam 7-8). But then he gingerly tiptoes through the so-called Succession Narrative (2 Sam 9-20), saying nothing about David's adultery with Bathsheba or his murder of her husband Uriah (2 Sam 11-12), nothing about Amnon's rape of his sister Tamar and Absalom's murder of Amnon (2 Sam 13), and nothing about Absalom's revolt or David's flight and return (2 Sam 14-20). He does tell the story of David's ill-fated census (1 Chr 21//2 Sam 24), indeed, using it to launch eight full chapters (unparalleled in Samuel-Kings) which describe David's plans for the temple and its services. David gathers materials and charges Solomon with the work (1 Chr 22); he assigns duties to the Levites and priests, appoints musicians, gatekeepers, officers, judges, and treasurers (1 Chr 23-27). Then the king calls a great assembly in Jerusalem and turns everything over to Solomon with fanfare and show (1 Chr 28-29).
The Chronicler skips the violent incidents marking Solomon's rise to power (1 Kgs 1-2). But for the most part, the actual story of Solomon's reign follows rather closely the account in Kings. Mostly through omissions and modifications the Chronicler places Solomon in as positive a light as possible (2 Chr 1-9//1 Kgs 3-11).
The story of the revolt under Rehoboam begins the Chronicler's account of the divided monarchy (2 Chr 10//1 Kgs 12). In contrast with the book of Kings, Chronicles excludes all official cross-references between the two kingdoms. Also missing are many well-known stories from the north, stories about Jeroboam (1 Kgs 12:25 - 14:20), and about Elijah, Elisha, Ahab and Jezebel (1 Kgs 16-21; 2 Kgs 1-10).
In writing the history of the monarchy the Chronicler enhances the accounts from Samuel-Kings with stories of successful building projects and successful wars under the leadership of obedient kings of Judah. Especially noteworthy is the story of an extraordinary passover held by Hezekiah (2 Chr 29-31) and the striking repentance of Manasseh (2 Chr 33:10-17), who, by contrast, is portrayed in the book of Kings as Judah's most wicked ruler, even practicing child sacrifice (2 Kgs 21:1-17; 23:26; 24:3-4; cf. Jer 15:4).
As the Chronicler describes the last years of the monarchy, he enhances the story of Josiah's passover, but cannot put a glossy face on the fall of Jerusalem. Still there is hope, for the exile was simply the fulfillment of Jeremiah's prophecy. The land must fulfill "its sabbaths" (2 Chr 36:21). But then it's homeward bound. The Chronicler's last word is Cyrus's edict for the people to return to Jerusalem and begin again (2 Chr 36:22-23).
To a large extent, the Chronicler's primary themes can be identified by his additions, omissions, and modifications of the text of Samuel-Kings which he had before him. The following are some of the more important ones.
The Worship of God in Jerusalem. Worshiping in Jerusalem was obviously important to the Chronicler. And he wanted it done right. So when David brings the ark to Jerusalem (1 Chr 15-16), the Chronicler adds a list of the Levites who did the honors and enhances the liturgy with portions of three psalms (105, 96, 106). David, the man of intrigue, war, and blood, becomes David the worshiper. Even the story of the ill-fated census becomes the springboard for on-going worship, for the very place where David confronted the angel with the drawn sword, the threshing floor of Ornan (1 Chr 21:15), not only was the place for David's altar and sacrifice (as also in 2 Sam 24), but also the site of the new temple: "Then David said, `Here shall be the house of the LORD God and here the altar of burnt offering for Israel'" (1 Chr 22:1, NRSV). And with that statement the Chronicler introduces eight full chapters (1 Chr 22-29) of worship and holy revelry in Jerusalem. He includes long lists of priests and officers, to be sure. But most of all he tells of worship, prayer, and praise.
Similarly, the Chronicler streamlines the story of Solomon so that the nine chapters dedicated to his reign (2 Chr 1-9) focus on the temple Solomon built, the temple in which Solomon worshiped. It's also the Chronicler who tells the story of the hymn-singing choir that led Jehoshaphat's army into battle (2 Chr 20:1-30). And where else but in Chronicles can you find the story of Hezekiah's great Jerusalem Passover (2 Chr 29-31)?
Maybe because the temple of his day was so modest in comparison with Solomon's; maybe because God's people were being tempted to worship other gods in other places, or were being tempted not to worship at all; maybe because he simply was a god-fearing man – whether or not such reasons explain the emphasis in his book, one thing is certain, worship in Jerusalem was dear to the heart of our author.
Kingship and the Kingdom of God. Perhaps the reason why the Chronicler focused on the good acts of good kings, sometimes even polishing the reputation of mediocre ones, was because he equated kingship in Israel directly with the kingdom of God.11 In 1 Chr 28:5, for example, David says that Solomon would "sit upon the throne of the kingdom of the LORD over Israel" (NRSV). And in 1 Chr 29:23, he takes his place "on the throne of the LORD, succeeding his father David as king" (NRSV). In some parallel passages, the changes are striking. In 1 Chr 17:14, for example, God speaks of "my house" and "my kingdom" where 2 Sam 7:16 has "your house" and "your kingdom." Similarly, in 2 Chr 9:8 the Queen of Sheba tells Solomon that God has "set you on his throne as king for the LORD your God" (NRSV) where 1 Kgs 10:9 has "set you on the throne of Israel" (NRSV).
In some cases kingship is transferred entirely to the heavenly realm (cf. 1 Chr 29:11; 2 Chr 20:6), perhaps preparing the way for other-worldly and apocalyptic views of the kingdom of God that would develop within Judaism. Prospects for the renewal of Israel's kingship must have seemed remote in the author's day. But he did not flinch from presenting the Davidic monarchy as the ideal. Indeed, once the house of David was established, the Davidic covenant seems to have overshadowed the Sinai covenant (cf. 2 Chr 6//1 Kgs 8). But the Chronicler's view of the ideal king was a gentle one. As Williamson notes, he has effected a certain "democratization" of kingship, frequently portraying the king as one who is "consulting with his people and involving them closely in the major events of the history."12
Judgment and Repentance. The so-called Deuteronomic principle takes its name from the reward-punishment scheme set out in Deut 28. In many ways, the Chronicler puts into explicit practice what Deuteronomy preaches. In 1 Chr 10:13-14, for example, Saul's death is said to be the result of disobedience, a comment not found in 1 Sam 31. In 1 Chr 28:9, David explains to Solomon the rewards of obedience and the price of disobedience. Again and again Chronicles illustrates those truths, often much more directly than in Samuel-Kings.
But the Chronicler's emphasis on the certainty of judgment for sin is softened by his deep appreciation for God's willingness to forgive and restore. In God's response to Solomon's prayer in 2 Chr 7, the Chronicler includes several lines not found in the parallel passage in 1 Kgs 9. After noting famine, plague, and pestilence as the penalties for sin, God declares:"If my people who are called by my name humble themselves, pray, seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land" (2 Chr 7:14, NRSV).
That graciousness of the Chronicler's God is further underscored by the way he sends prophetic warnings before judgment is meted out. The warnings can have beneficial effects (e.g. 2 Chr 12:5-8), but if rejected, punishment follows (e.g. 2 Chr 16:7-10; 24:19-22; 26:16-21).13 The Chronicler leaves little room for mystery and certainly does not seem to struggle directly with the problem of innocent suffering. But his straightforward view of God envisions a generous divine response to repentance, one that results in restoration.
Hope. In a sense, the entire thrust of the Chronicler's work comes under this heading. While the author of Samuel-Kings seems intent on showing how far God's people had fallen and how much they deserved their punishment, the Chronicler presents a more hopeful future. Yes, punishment is deserved. But God forgives and restores.
Both Samuel and Chronicles quote David's answer to the prophet Gad when the Lord offered a choice of punishments after David's ill-conceived census. But Chronicles cannot resist adding emphasis to God's mercy. In Samuel, God's mercies are great; in Chronicles they are very great: "I am in great distress; please let me fall into the hand of the LORD for His mercies are very great. But do not let me not fall into the hand of man" (1 Chr 21:13, NASB).
And that God of great mercy was the one who heard Hezekiah's prayer when many of the people were not properly prepared for the Passover service: "The good LORD pardon all who set their hearts to seek God, the LORD the God of their ancestors, even though not in accordance with the sanctuary's rules of cleanness" (2 Chr 30:18-19, NRSV).
The response? "The LORD heard Hezekiah, and healed the people" (2 Chr 30:20, NRSV). That is consistent with the picture of God which the Chronicler presents throughout his work. Hope is alive. God will restore.
VALUE/RELEVANCE FOR TODAY
Each of the Chronicler's major themes can offer significant insights for the modern believer, though some more directly than others. The emphasis on continuing public worship in a time of crisis, for example, may be more helpful to those already strong in faith than to those on the brink. But it is still a message well worth pondering.
Another contemporary concern illustrated in Chronicles is the on-going tension between the universal kingdom of God and the local kingdom under local rulers. But however one might identify the two, Chronicles reminds us that the human kingdom is flawed, even while it is recognized as the kingdom of God. Thus we are called to faithful action in this world while we wait for a better one.
Also worth noting is the Chronicler's linkage between obedience and blessing, disobedience and disaster, even if he does not address the complex problem of innocent suffering. Judgment as gracious warning, and repentance as the invitation to healing and blessing, are both important messages for those who may be discouraged by their wayward tendencies. The past doesn't have to be an impossible burden. Both for the individual and the community Chronicles points to a hopeful future.
Finally, the combination of Chronicles and Samuel-Kings offers an excellent opportunity for Bible study, especially if one is interested in exploring how inspired authors adapt Scripture to new settings and new circumstances. In an age when believers may be tempted to lock Scripture into an unbending formula, Chronicles reminds us that "the Word of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword" (Heb 4:12, NRSV).
ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION AND REFLECTION
1. If, for the purpose of meeting particular needs in the believing community, the Spirit guided the author of Samuel-Kings to write a bad-news version of Israel's history, and the author of Chronicles to write a good-news version, does God guide pastors, teachers, and parents in the same way today? How do we determine which message is needed?
2. Have changes in our world and culture made the Chronicler's interest in centralized public worship more important or less so? Why?
3. When and to what extent is it appropriate for us to "skip" reading parts of Scripture (the Chronicler's genealogies, for example), simply because we find them boring or tedious? What are the relative benefits of thorough reading as compared with the benefits of reading selectively on the basis of need and interest?
4. The Chronicler seems to be eager to explain all disasters to God's people as a result of disobedience. To what extent might such a model apply to religious communities today (e.g. churches, schools)? To what extent might it apply to individuals? How can one recognize when random evil simply overrules the laws of cause-and-effect? Is it possible to say that the gift of prosperity might sometimes be a demonic gift because of the dangers posed to spiritual life?
5. The Chronicler's God was willing to break the rules in order to give another chance to the unprepared worshipers in Hezekiah's day (2 Chr 30). Could you worship such a God? To what extent could such disregard for rules lead to carelessness? To what extent could such adaptability give people new hope?
Endres, John C., S.J., William R. Millar, John Barclay Burns, eds.
1998 Chronicles and Its Synoptic Parallels in Samuel, Kings, and Related Biblical Texts. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.
1993 I & II Chronicles. (The Old Testament Library). Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox.
Klein, Ralph W.
1992 "Chronicles, Book of 1-2," in The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, Ed. David Noel Freedman, et al. New York: Doubleday, pp. 992-1002.
Myers, Jacob M.
1965 I Chronicles. (Anchor). Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
1965 II Chronicles. (Anchor). Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Newsome, James D., Jr., editor
1986 A Synoptic Harmony of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker.
Selman, Martin J.
1994 1 Chronicles. (Tyndale). Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity.
1994 2 Chronicles. (Tyndale). Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity.
Williamson, H. G. M.
1982 1 and 2 Chronicles. (New Century). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
11. Martin J. Selman, 1 Chronicles: An Introduction & Commentary
, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press
, 1994), p 10.
22. H. G. M. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, New Century Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982), p 39, citing M. D. Johnson, The Purpose of the Biblical Genealogies (Cambridge, 1969), pp 47-55 [cf. 2nd ed., 1988].
33. Ralph W. Klein, "Chronicles, Book of 1-2," in Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, ed. David Noel Freedman, et al. (New York: Doubleday, 1992), p 994.
44. Klein, p 994.
55. So Williamson, pp 16-17.
66. See discussion in Williamson, pp 21-23.
77. Chronicles as "theodicy" is suggested by Magne Saebo in "Chronistische Theologie/ Chronistisches Geschichtswerk," Theologische Realenzyklopaedie, Band 8 (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1981), pp 83-84.
88. See summary by Klein
, p 996. A full listing of biblical parallels is found in Jacob Myers, II Chronicles
, Anchor Bible (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965), pp 227-231.
99. Klein, pp 996-999, gives a compact analysis of the Chronicler's use of sources. For the basic research on the additions dealing with building and warfare, he credits P. Welten, Geschichte und Geschichtsdarstellung in den Chronikbuechern, Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament 42 (Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1973).
1010. Klein, p 997.
1111. See Williamson, p 26.
1212. Williamson, p 28.
1313. Williamson (pp 32-33) gives a brief summary but attributes the definitive study to Sara Japhet, The Idealogy of the Book of Chronicles and its Place in Biblical Thought [Hebrew] (Jerusalem, 1977), pp 154-166.