1. After four westward voyages to the New World, Christopher Columbus believed that he had

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1. After four westward voyages to the New World, Christopher Columbus believed that he had

A. a new continent

B. a string of islands off Africa

C. Asia

D. the Northwest Passage

E. Ceuta

2. All of the following were diseases brought to the New World by European explorers and colonizers EXCEPT

A. smallpox

B. measles

C. influenza

D. chicken pox

E. syphilis

3. Of the African slaves brought to the New World by Europeans from 1492 through 1770, the vast
majority were shipped to

A. Virginia

B. the Carolinas

C. the Caribbean

D. Georgia

E. Florida

4. France's colonies in North America in the 17th Century centered on

A. the Hudson River

B. Hudson's Bay

C. the Atlantic Ocean

D. Nova Scotia

E. the St. Lawrence River

5. The advantage which investors gained through joint stock companies was that

A. risk was limited

B. high profits were guaranteed

C. they were backed by proprietors

D. they were supported by public taxes

E. they had been successful since the 15th Century

6. One of the most important reasons that the Virginia colony at Jamestown survived its first few years was the

A. careful preparation of the colonists

B. abundance of skilled labor

C. absence of disease

D. presence of strong women

E. support of the Algonquin Indians

7. One of the reasons that relations between English colonists and Indians deteriorated in the
Chesapeake Bay region during the 17th Century was the

A. success of cotton growing

B. spread of tobacco farming

C. warlike tendencies of Indians beginning with the arrival of the English

D. direct influence of the joint stock company

E. absence of any communication between colonists and Indians

8. Which of the following colonies were founded as havens for oppressed religious minorities?

A. New York and Pennsylvania

B. South Carolina and North Carolina

C. Massachusetts Bay and Pennsylvania

D. Maryland and Virginia

E. North Carolina and Georgia

9. One of the most significant differences between the early 17th Century colonists in Massachusetts Bay and those in Chesapeake Bay was that

A. women had significantly higher status in Massachusetts Bay than in Chesapeake Bay

B. women lived longer in Chesapeake Bay than in Massachusetts Bay

C. women had significantly higher status in Chesapeake Bay than in Massachusetts Bay

D. women owned significantly more property in Massachusetts Bay than in Chesapeake Bay

E. widows remained single longer in Chesapeake Bay than Massachusetts Bay

10. Massachusetts Bay colonists fought a war with the Pequot Indians in 1637 after

A. English settlers threatened the Pequots' power in New England

B. the Pequot rivalry with the Wampanoags increased in intensity

C. the Pequots' trade with France was interrupted

D. New England colonial governments took land by eminent domain

E. the Pequots refused to convert to Christianity

11. Anne Hutchinson threatened the established order in Massachusetts Bay by advocating

A. a covenant of good works

B. a covenant of grace

C. the distribution of free land to individual families

D. religious freedom for Jews

E. war with the Pequots

12. The colonies which were the most important havens for Quakers during the 17th Century were Pennsylvania and

A. New York

B. New Jersey

C. North Carolina

D. Massachusetts

E. Georgia

13. England began to establish colonies in the New World during the 16th Century for all of the
following reasons EXCEPT to

A. raid Spanish treasure ships

B. prevent Spain from dominating the western hemisphere

C. gain access to American natural resources

D. grow cotton for England's textile industry

E. establish control of the fur trade

14. Slave owners drew on the African skills of their slaves in all of the following areas EXCEPT

A. canoe building

B. fishing net construction

C. cattle herding

D. plantation management

E. rice cultivation

15. The most successful and longest-lasting Indian resistance movement in colonial North America
was the

A. Pequot War

B. Tuscarora War

C. Creek-Yamasee War

D. Pueblo revolt

E. King Philip's War

16. European colonists in South Carolina during the 17th and 18th centuries were dependent on
Indian labor to supply

A. deerskins and rice

B. deerskins and Indian slaves

C. Indian slaves and indigo

D. food and beaver skins

E. horses and food

17. King Philip's War, fought between colonists in new England and the Wampanoags in 1675, was
initiated because of

A. colonial encroachments on tribal lands

B. the presence of the French

C. deep hostilities which began in the early 17th Century

D. a declaration of war by the Massachusetts Bay government

E. British agitation

18. All of the following attitudes toward women were held by Puritans during the 17th Century

A. a woman's destiny was fulfilled only through a man

B. a male child needed more time to develop in the womb than a female child

C. women were less able than men to understand logical arguments

D. intellectual pursuits were harmful to women

E. women could not reach salvation in the next world

19. The Half Way Covenant was created by the Puritan hierarchy to

A. allow Quakers limited rights in the Massachusetts Bay colony

B. give partial membership in the church to those who were not yet completely converted

C. encourage poor people to join the church if they could not purchase a seat

D. establish satellite churches for those who lived outside the main towns

E. accommodate Puritans who wanted membership in the Church of England

20. Which of the following assumptions is a central part of mercantilism?

A. the amount of wealth in the world was unlimited

B. the goal of each nation was to become self-sufficient

C. each nation benefited from the economic success of other nations

D. nations should import good worth the same amount that they exported

E. colonies were a drain on the economy of the home country

21. All of the following provided the context of crises which led to the Salem witchcraft trials of

A. the establishment of the Dominion of New England

B. the revocation of New England's colonial charters

C. war between England the France in New England

D. a decline in Puritan church membership

E. a general decline in the population of New England

22. Which of the following is an accurate statement about colonial society in the mid-18th Century?

A. married women were responsible for managing the farms

B. the largest city at 1750 already had 500,000 people

C. married women normally owned businesses

D. the vast majority of family lived in rural areas

E. newspapers were not generally available to urban or rural populations

23. In his late 18th Century book, Letters From An American Farmer, Hector St. John de Crevecoeur describes

A. the industrial innovations of Americans

B. the identity of Americans

C. the military effects of the Revolutionary War

D. his negotiations with General Washington

E. his experiences as a French envoy to America

24. In 1733, the government of New York imprisoned John Peter Zenger on charges that he

A. supported squatters who claimed the right to vacant land

B. publicly criticized the government of New York

C. participated in the activities of the Sons of Liberty

D. fomented Iroquois activity in upstate New York

E. encouraged the Stono Rebellion

25. The Great Awakening which swept the colonies from the 1730s through the 1770s is best
described as an example of

A. religious revivalism

B. political democracy

C. a crusade for public education

D. economic populism

E. a tax rebellion

26. During the mid-18th Century, all of the following crises challenged the political status of the
colonies EXCEPT

A. the Stono Rebellion in South Carolina

B. a slave revolt in new York City

C. land riots along the Hudson River

D. the Regulator Movement in the Carolinas

E. the Pequot War in New England

27. During the 1760s, political friction increased between the colonies and the British government
because the colonies generally believed that

A. Parliament had no right to tax them

B. the principle of virtual representation was valid

C. the British could tax the colonists only with their consent

D. only the king had the right to tax the colonies

E. the government of George III was illegitimate

28. "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise."

The above quotation from the 18th Century reflects a contemporary attitude of

A. pragmatism

B. utopian socialism

C. mercantilism

D. Puritanism

E. evangelism

29. In the decade following the end of the Seven Years War, one of the major challenges to political leaders in the British North American colonies was to

A. integrate Indians into the mainstream of colonial society

B. guarantee religious toleration

C. find ways to let the colonies control internal affairs while remaining subject to the British

D. find new ways to tax the colonies for local projects

E. integrate a growing population of freed blacks into colonial society

30. To Britain's Parliament, the Townshend Acts of 1767 appeared to be similar to the Navigation

Acts. To many colonists, however, the Townshend Acts were unacceptable because they

A. affected all colonists equally

B. included a quartering act

C. were enacted by Parliament and not the kind

D. contradicted the theory of mercantilism

E. raised money to pay for royal officials stationed in the colonies

31. One of the most important long-term political activities of the Daughters of Liberty was

A. throwing chests of tea into Boston Harbor

B. spinning their own cloth

C. reading aloud at public houses and taverns

D. lobbying for women's right to vote

E. carrying weapons of self defense

32. Parliament enacted the Tea Act of 1773 primarily to

A. promote a new product on the American market

B. raise large sums of money through taxes

C. sell tea only at government approved tea houses

D. save the East India Company from bankruptcy

E. reward American merchants

33. "The Declaration of Rights and Grievances" enacted by the First Continental Congress was
written in direct response to the

A. Stamp Act

B. Intolerable Acts

C. Navigation Acts

D. Declaration of Independence

E. Dominion of New England

34. The American treaty with France in 1778 brought all of the following benefits to the American cause during the Revolutionary War EXCEPT

A. France openly aided the Americans

B. France sent troops and naval vessels to America

C. the British had to fight the French in the West Indies

D. Spain entered the war as an ally of the United States

E. Spain was an ally of France

35. Americans benefited greatly from the 1783 Treaty of Paris between the United States and Britain essentially because

A. trade disputes with Canada were resolved

B. the western border of the U. S. was the Rocky Mountains

C. Britain's Indian allies also signed the treaty

D. the United States was granted independence unconditionally

E. Florida became a U. S. territory

36. In 1789, when Massachusetts required towns to offer their citizens free public education, the
state also stipulated that

A. elementary schools had to be open to girls and boys

B. education had to be offered through the high school level

C. vocational education was offered along with classical languages

D. schools must teach classes in Latin

E. experiential education was to be part of the curriculum

37. In 1776, when Abigail Adams implored her husband, John Adams, to "Remember the Ladies" as he created a new government, she argued that

A. women would not feel bound to support the laws of a government in which they had no

actual representation

B. women and men should be equally represented at the Constitutional Convention

C. women should be allowed to hold public office

D. women should be given the right to vote

E. the Declaration of Independence should read "all men and women are created equal"

38. Which of the following is an accurate statement about the status of African-Americans in the

United States during the two decades following the Revolutionary War?

A. no northern states abolished slavery

B. several southern state abolished slavery

C. most northern states emancipated slaves immediately

D. half of the black population was free

E. Boston and Philadelphia were considered the most hospitable cities by free blacks

39. In the 1770s, the chief aim of those who wrote the new state constitutions was to

A. prevent state governments from becoming tyrannical

B. award governors sufficient power to control the legislatures

C. keep the states financially solvent

D. facilitate trade with Britain and France

E. deter republican reforms

40. The United States under the Articles of Confederation was called a "firm league of friendship" because

A. relations among the states were truly harmonious

B. there were no outstanding disagreements among the states

C. the national government was not given the authority to demand that states act together

D. the Articles of Confederation Congress sought friendship with Britain

E. the United States joined an international coalition of states pledged to outlaw war

41. The Boston Tea Party led Britain to enact the

A. Stamp Act

B. Navigation Acts

C. Coercive Acts

D. Declaratory Act

E. Quebec Act

42. All of the following were problems encountered by the government of the Articles of Confederation EXCEPT

A. inflation

B. Spain's presence on the southern and western borders

C. Britain's closure of the West Indies to American trade

D. excessive centralization of power in the Congress

E. Britain's maintenance of forts along the Great Lakes

43. The rebellion of Daniel Shays in 1789 grew out of a need to

A. prevent the collection of taxes

B. support the Constitution

C. promote the passage of the Bill of Rights

D. stop the collection of the stamp tax

E. criticize King George

44. In 1795 the Treaty of Greenville between the United States and the Miami Confederacy
established the principle that

A. citizens of the U. S. could settle anywhere in the Northwest Territory

B. the U. S. government should continue to acquire Indian lands

C. Indian tribes had sovereignty over lands not formally ceded to the U. S.

D. Indian tribes held sovereignty over the entire Northwest Territory

E. New York state would begin to purchase land from the Iroquois nation

45. The question whether to count slaves for the purpose of allocating representatives to each state under the Constitution was resolved with the decision that

A. three-fifths of the slaves would be counted

B. all of the slaves would be counted

C. no slaves would be counted

D. one-half of the slaves would be counted

E. two-thirds of the slaves would be counted

46. An educational profile of the population of British North America in the 18th Century would
reveal that

A. most colonists could read and write

B. most children under the age of 16 were educated in public schools

C. the vast majority of colonists could neither read nor write

D. most adult females could read and write

E. well over half of adult men could read and write

47. "I am obnoxious to each carping tongue
Who says my hand a needle better fits,
A Poets pen all scorn I should thus wrong,
For such despite they cast on Female wits:
If what I do prove well, it won't advance,
They'l say it's stoln, or else it was by chance."

The above selection from a 17th Century poem by Anne Bradstreet reflects her

A. support for the Great Awakening

B. agreement with the established Puritan views about women

C. belief in the intellectual capacity of women

D. recognition of the need for public education

E. faith in Calvinism

48. All of the following European powers competed for control of the Caribbean during the 17th

Century EXCEPT

A. France

B. Holland

C. Spain

D. England

E. Sweden

49. The powerful Aztec empire that the Spaniards encountered in the 16th Century was the heir to
which earlier Meso-American civilizations?

A. Olmecs and Mayans

B. Olmecs and Iroquois

C. Iroquois and Mexicas

D. Mexicas and Paiutes

E. Paiutes and Californios

50. Liberty of conscience was defended by Roger Williams on the grounds that

A. all religions were equal in the eyes of God

B. the signers of the Mayflower Compact had guaranteed it

C. Puritan ideas about sin and salvation were outmoded

D. theological truths would emerge from the clash of ideas

E. the state was an improper and ineffectual agency in matters of the spirit

51. The 1649 Maryland Toleration Act did which of the following?

A. Removed all restrictions on the practice of religion.

B. Provided for the separation of church and state.

C. Granted religious freedom to all Christians who accepted the Trinity.

D. Led immediately to the persecution of Protestant colonists.

E. Led immediately to the persecution of Catholic colonists

52. In the period 1688 to 1763, which of the following was a consequence of Europe's wars for

A. Armed struggles spread to North America.

B. The French made themselves the dominant power in North America.

C. The British taxed their American colonies heavily to finance the wars.

D. The Spanish lost all their territory in North America.

E. The European powers relied on colonial recruits to staff their European forces.

53. Which of the following colonies required each community of 50 or more families to provide a
teacher of reading and writing?

A. Pennsylvania

B. Massachusetts

C. Virginia

D. Maryland

E. Rhode Island

Use the following information to answer questions 54-55.

54. Widely thought to be the first political cartoon in the colonies, the above illustration was made by

A. Benjamin Rush

B. Patrick Henry

C. Thomas Nast

D. Benjamin Franklin

E. James Madison

55. The purpose of the above illustration was to

A. inspire cooperation between the colonies.

B. impress Britain with colonial unity.

C. form a New England confederacy to compete with the South.

D. encourage colonial expansion in the West.

E. None of the above.

56. The Second Amendment guaranteed the right "to keep and bear arms" because of the need for

A. a elastic clause

B. a well regulated militia

C. a large standing army

D. a virtuous citizenry

E. protection of the president

57. Many historians believe that in order to gain the support of the South in 1790 for his controversial financial plans, Alexander Hamilton offered to

A. protect the importation of slaves beyond 1808

B. amend the constitution to protect slavery in perpetuity

C. locate the national capital in Virginia

D. support the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

E. promote cotton growing through direct federal subsidies

58. The Democratic-Republican societies, one of the earliest groups of political dissenters, were first

organized in opposition to

A. Washington's foreign policies

B. Washington's appointment of Jefferson as Secretary of State

C. the excise tax on whiskey

D. Hamilton's plans for funding the debt

E. the Judiciary Act of 1789

59. In his Farewell Address of 1796, President Washington urged the nation to avoid

A. all alliances

B. alliances with European nations

C. permanent alliances

D. commercial ties to other nations

E. relations with the Ottoman Empire

60. One of the chief aims of the Alien and Sedition acts was to

A. suppress political dissent

B. stimulate the growth of the Republican Party

C. protect the First Amendment

D. help immigrants assimilate to American society

E. respond to the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions

61. Which three new states entered the United States in the first decade after the Constitution was ratified?

A. Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee

B. Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio

C. Vermont, Main, and Ohio

D. Maine, Missouri, and Vermont

E. Maine, Missouri, and California

62. In 1800, a group of African-Americans planned an attack on Richmond led by

A. Frederick Douglass

B. Joseph Smith

C. Gabriel Prosser

D. Denmark Vesey

E. Nat Turner

63. Chief Justice John Marshall first established the principle that the Supreme Court could determine the constitutionality of Congressional actions in the case of

A. McCulloch v. Maryland

B. Dartmouth College v. Woodward

C. Fletcher v. Peck

D. Marbury v. Madison

E. Worcester v. Georgia

64. In his campaign for reelection in 1804, President Jefferson claimed credit for all of the following

A. western expansion

B. the restoration of republican values

C. cutting government spending

D. enacting the Alien and Sedition Acts

E. repealing Federalist excise and property taxes

65. President Thomas Jefferson claimed success in protecting American trading rights as a result of
conflict with

A. Britain

B. France

C. Russia

D. Tripoli

E. Spain

66. Frustrated by infringements on American trade during the administration of President Jefferson,
Congress enacted all of the following to restrict trade with Britain and France EXCEPT

A. the Non-Importation Act

B. the Embargo Act

C. the Non-Intercourse Act

D. Macon's Bill Number 2

E. the Rush-Bagot Treaty

67. One of the unexpected results of the Hartford Convention was the

A. nomination of Andrew Jackson for president

B. swift decline of the Federalist Party

C. decline of Iroquois rule in the northwest

D. abolition of the three-fifths compromise

E. end to the importation of slaves into the United States

68. Which of the following was a result of the War of 1812?

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