1. (a) gamma; 1 (b) (i) beta; 1 (ii) An explanation to include: alpha would not penetrate/alpha all absorbed/alpha stopped by paper/eq; all gamma would penetrate (too much)



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1. (a) gamma; 1

(b) (i) beta; 1

(ii) An explanation to include:

1. alpha would not penetrate/alpha all absorbed/alpha


stopped by paper/eq;
2. all gamma would penetrate (too much)/gamma not absorbed;

[Accept alpha not strong enough and gamma is too strong/eq for 1 max] 2



[4]


2. (a) An explanation to include:

1. van plus reference to change in speed;


2. in same time/ 5 s / 10 s; 2

(b) An explanation to include:

1. same mass/weight/eq;
2. bigger acceleration;

[Accept also F = ma argument) 2



[4]


3. (a) (i) (gravitational) potential / (G)PE;
[Accept gravitational/uphill/positional] 1

(ii) kinetic/KE/movement;


potential/PE; 2

(iii) A description to include two from:

1. sound;
2. heat;
3. energy of moving water; 2
[Allow maximum KE at point of entry for 1 mark]

(b) (i) work = force ´ distance;


= 450 N ´ 8.5 m;
= 3825 (J); 3
[If 8 m used, giving 3600 (J), max 2]
[Reject ]

[8]

4. (a) protons/p; 1
[Reject protons and neutrons]

(b) negative/ -1 / e- /minus; 1

(c) An explanation to include:

1. positive;


2. lost a negative charge/more protons than electrons; 2
[Reject lost an electron]

(d) no of protons = no of electrons = 3;


no of neutrons = 7 – 3 = 4; 2
[bald correct answer, 2 marks]

[6]


5. (a) isotopes; 1

(b) 92 protons;


146 neutrons; 2

(c) (i) fission; 1

(ii) A description to include three from:

1. neutron hits/strikes/absorbed by uranium (nucleus);


[Ignore cuts/slices through]
2. two smaller daughter nuclei/particles/elements/isotopes
formed/uranium splits;
[Ignore fragments]
3. neutrons left over;
4. energy/kinetic energy/heat is released;
[Accept heating] 3

(d) (i) A description to include two valid points:

eg 1. energy/heat being released/effect on container/eq;
2. environmental issue/eq; 2

(ii) Any reasonable suggestion;


eg thick walls/concrete walls/lead (lined) walls/underground;
[Reject air tight] 1

[10]


6. (a) drag/resistance/force/push/thrust/upthrust;
air/atmosphere;
[Reject wind/friction] 2

(b) 56; 1

(c) (i) pull of Earth/weight/gravitational pull/downward (pull) greater than upward (push)/there is resultant force downwards;
[Allow gravity] 1

(ii) both forces the same/balanced/equal/resultant force is zero/OWTTE; 1

(d) (i) speed decreases;
new lower terminal velocity/horizontal region shown;
(Independent marking points) 2

(ii) An explanation to include three from:



  • air resistance increases;

  • at start upward force greater than downward force;

  • eventually forces balance;

  • larger surface area;

  • air resistance decreases as parachutist slows down; 3

[10]


7. (a) positive;
negative;
none;
(Be wary of the ‘dash’ for g) 3

(b) does not penetrate the air/casing/easily stopped/OWTTE;


strongly ionising/very good at ionising/lots of ion pairs;
[Reject least harmful/least dangerous] 2

[5]


8. (a) (i) A description to include two from:

  • nucleus absorbs neutron/nucleus hit by neutron;

  • splits into (two) fragments/parts;

  • and extra neutrons; 2

(ii) kinetic energy/heat; 1

(b) removes energy (heat) from fuel/core/OWTTE;


heats water/steam/produces steam;
[Ignore cooling/prevent overheating] 2

[5]

9. (a) (nuclear) fission; 1

(b) kinetic/heat/thermal; 1

(c) An explanation to include three from:


  1. the neutrons released;

  2. could cause further fissions/collisions/with other uranium atoms/nuclei;

  3. more neutrons released;

  4. rate of fission increases; 3

[5]


10. (a) (i) 86; 1

(ii) 134; 1

(iii) An explanation to include particles with:
· same number of protons;
· different numbers of neutrons; 2

(b) (i) An explanation to include:


· gas breathed in;
· a - particles cannot pass through living tissue;
· named health risk; 3

(ii) A discussion to include three of:


· lack of understanding of dangers;
· evidence;
· cost;
· information not widely known;
· complacency;
· information did not spell out dangers clearly;
· regional variation;
plus 1 communication mark for ensuring that spelling,
punctuation and grammar are accurate, so that the meaning is clear; 4

[11]


11. (a) An explanation to include two from:

1. movement of fuel through pipes;

2. friction with surface of pipe causing charges to be produced;

3. electrons transferred between the fuel and the pipe; 2


(b) spark could ignite the fuel/cause explosion; 1

(c) An explanation to include:

1. copper wire acts as an earth;

2. which neutralises any charged object placed in contact with it; 2



[5]


12. (a) (i) 235 – 143 = 92; 1

(ii) positive; 1

(iii) An explanation to include two from:

1. alpha particles are positively charged;

2. neutrons have no charge;

3. alpha particles would be repelled away;

plus1 communication mark for use of a suitable

structure and style of writing; 3

(b) (i) An explanation to include two from:

1. three neutrons hit three more uranium nuclei/OWTTE;

2. these fission to produce nine more neutrons/OWTTE;

3. process keeps repeating at a faster and faster


rate/OWTTE;

4. as more neutrons produced resulting in a chain


reaction/OWTTE; 3

(ii) transferred to thermal energy (in the core); 1

(iii) steam for the turbines/electricity; 1

[10]


13. (a) same proton number / number of protons / element / atomic number;
more neutrons / different neutron / nucleon number / mass number /
OWTTE; 2

(b) 6
8


6
[Deduct 1 mark for each incorrect or blank answer] 2
(c) An explanation to include any two valid point, for example:
improved education /technology;
improved wider communication; 2

plus one communication mark for ensuring that spelling, punctuation 1


and grammar are accurate, so that the meaning is clear

[7]


14. (a) (i) A calculation to include:

1. W = 50 × 10 / mg;

2. = 500;

3. N; [Bald, correct answer scores 3 marks] 3

(ii) work done = force × distance / 500 × 2.5; [Allow ecf from part (a)(i)]
= 1250;
J; [Bald, correct answer scores 3 marks] 3

(iii) A calculation to include:

1. ; [Allow ecf from part (a)(ii)]

2. 250(W); [Bald, correct answer scores 2 marks] 2

(b) power out put was greater;
less time; 2
[Accept correct calculation for two]]
[Reject quicker]
[Beware of candidates who discuss more energy]

[10]


15. (a) (i) kinetic / movement / motion energy; 1

(ii) (transferred) to heat / thermal / degraded energy; 1


[Reject sound by itself]
[Long lists not acceptable]

(b) An explanation to include:


1. the car gains gravitational / potential energy as it moves up
the hill;
2. this must come from the (kinetic) energy of the car; 2
[Accept kinetic energy to potential energy for 2 marks]
[Ignore answers related to force]
(c) Either
less work has to be done by the brakes as some energy transferred to
gravitational potential energy / OWTTE;
or
gravitational force helping to slow down the car (OWTTE); 1
[Allow pulled by gravity]

(d) An explanation to include two from:


1. when stopping kinetic energy transferred to heat;
2. lost to atmosphere / when braking is lost;
3. more fuel burnt when speeding up;
[Allow used]
4. more energy used when speeding up / faster speeds; 2
[Ignore reference to force]
[Do not credit an answer where energy increased / needed for
speeding and slowing down]

plus one communication mark for ensuring that spelling, punctuation 1


and grammar are accurate so that the meaning is clear

[8]


16. (a) (i) w = mg / weight = mass × gravity / w = m × 10; 1
[Reject f = ma]

(ii) 50 = m × 10;


m = 5;
kg; [Bald, correct answer scores 3 marks only if (b)(i) is correct]] 3
[First two marks are conditional on correct equation being shown in (b)(i)]

(iii) 40 (N) 1


(direction not needed)

(b) (i) unbalanced forces decrease / forces become balanced /


goes to zero unbalanced force;
drag force / air resistance increases (with speed of the object) / as it falls; 2

(ii) drag - 50 (N);


acceleration - 0 (m/s2); 2

[9]

17. (a) (i) Any two from:
1. (high) energy / packet of energy /
energy emitted (as nucleus decays);
2. electromagnetic / em;
3. waves / short wavelength / high frequency; 2
[Accept e.m. wave for 2 marks]
[Ignore no mass / charge / reference to speed of light]

(ii) (only) γ passes through tissue / α or β stopped / very penetrating /


cannot get out of body;
[Ignore ionising ability reference]
[Reference to entry rather than leaving body scores 0 marks] 1

(b) (i) Geiger (Muller tube) / GM tube / rate meter / γ - camera / photo plate; 1

(ii) A calculation to include:
1. / 1500 / time; [Ignore value of t]
2. 25; 2

(c) (i) to allow time to take measurements / OWTTE;


[Ignore make it move accurately / health risk] 1

(ii) radiation harmful / minimise risk / in body too long / health risk;


count rate will not change enough / OWTTE; 2

plus one communication mark for ensuring that spelling, punctuation


and grammar are accurate, so that the meaning is clear 1

[10]


18. Any two from:
1. nuclear / uranium / plutonium;
[Reject radioactivity]
2. hep;
3. coal;
[Reject water / solar / tidal / petrol / wave / geothermal]
4. oil;
5. fossil fuel; 2

[2]

19. (a) (i) 90; 1

(ii) (39-40); 1

(iii) An explanation to include:
1. (15-16) s;
2. slows down / less (lower) speed / reference to graph /
decelerate;
[Reject change in speed] 2

(iv) 20; 1

(b) A description to include three from:
1. F = mg;
2. F increases;
3. F > mg
F decreasing;
4. F = mg;
5. mg = constant;
[OWTTE in right context] 3

[8]


20. (a) 8 (m/s) 1

(b) 1 (s) 1

(c) acceleration / rate of change of speed / rate of change of velocity /
deceleration / how the speed changes with time; 1

(d) quicker / faster / bigger / larger / greater acceleration /


reach max speed sooner / run at maximum speed for longer /
higher average speed; 1

[4]


21. A calculation to show:

1. W = F × d or 130 × 7 or 130 × 700;


2. = only 910 allowed;
3. J / Nm; 3
[Do not accept J / Ncm]

[3]


22. (a) (i) fission; 1

(ii) neutrons; 1

(iii) kinetic energy (of moving particles); 1

(iv) An explanation to include:

1. (each) neutron collides with another (U) nucleus / OWTTE;
2. rapidly increasing number of neutrons / OWTTE; 2

(b) (i) An explanation to include:

1. steam (turns) turbine;
2. turbine turns generator; 2
[Accept correct action of generator for 2 marks]

(ii) An explanation to include three relevant comments, for example:

1. environmental issue – specific health risk;
2. control rods could fail;
3. disposal of waste (radioactive);
4. steam can burn;
5. build up pressure – explosion
6. potential terrorist target / provide material for nuclear
weapons;
7. decommissioning process; 3

[10]


23. (a) kinetic / KE;
(gravitational) potential / PE;
either order 2

(b) arrow in line with shuttle in orbit and pointing towards centre


of Earth (approximately horizontal by eye); 1

[3]


24. (a) the Earth / ground; 1

(b) it decreases; 1


(c) mark according to quality of answer:
an argument either way with at least two supporting reasons for 3
marks
an argument with one supporting reason for 2 marks
no argument but a simple point made for 1 mark 3

[5]


25. (a) (i) to sterilise the blood/destroy microbes or viruses; 1

(ii) gamma; 1

(iii) they would be absorbed by the bag 1

(iv) the blood does not become radioactive 1

(b) (i) yes but small/ not significant ;
since only a small proportion of total background radioactivity; 2

(ii) by writing in journals/ speaking to other scientists at conferences 1



[7]


26. (a) arrow drawn to the left; 1

(b) the sizes are equal; 1

(c) the strips have the same type of charge;
similar charges repel 2

(d) (i) electrons ; 1

(ii) positive, there are more positive charges than negative 1

[6]


27. (a) 15 (m/s) 1

(b) acceleration = change in speed ÷ time;


= 15 m/s ÷ 1.5 s;
= 10 m/s2; 3

(c) (i) the acceleration decreases

(ii) this is shown by the decreasing slope/ gradient of the graph 2
(d) at Pisa, air resistance affected the objects ;
the lighter object was affected more than the heavy one
there is no air on the Moon, so both objects had the same
acceleration/ neither object was affected by air resistance 3

[9]


28. (a) fission; 1

(b) neutrons are released;


which can cause further fissions;
which in turn release more neutrons to cause more fissions; 3

(c) Any three points from;


operating technicians need to be supervised
safety devices should be built into reactors
automatic shutdown if temperature rises/ reaction goes out of control
shut down old nuclear plants;;; 3

[7]


29. (a) work = force × distance;
= 850 (N) × 15 (m);
= 12 750 J;
must have unit for 3rd mark
Accept joules, J, Nm, Newtonmetre(s) 3

(b) (i) (gravitational) potential; 1

(ii) kinetic; Accept movement 1

(c) 850; 1



[6]


30. Communication mark- reasonable attempt at spelling and punctuation, so that 1
meaning is clear;
any two points from:
charging -from nylon/carpet by friction /movement or
door handle /metal is a conductor/door/wood is an insulator
or electron movement in any direction/could be shown on labelled 2
diagram( Reference to positive electrons max 1 mark);;

[3]

31. (a) one mark for each correct line;; 2
(any 1 or 2 correct lines;)

(b) alpha; (ignore beta reject gamma for both marks)


highly ionising/does not penetrate far/short range/absorbed easily; 2

[4]


32. (a) (idea of) time for half of undecayed nuclei/atoms to decay
OR (idea of time) for radioactivity/count rate halved; 1

(reject mass changes)

(b) 1000÷2 [any other value (in range 500-1000)÷2]; 2



(check graph)

50 (47-53) (min);



(ignore unit)
(or alternative calculation for 2 marks)
[Reject 100/2 =50 for both marks]

(c) (i) 2 (Bq); 1



(ignore units)

(ii) any two from:


contamination idea;

e.g. still waste there/soil contaminated

opinion/perception of risk/worry/fright;


radioactivity can be harmful/dangerous/cause cancer/mutations;
2 Bq (or ecf from (c)(i)/only 2 half lives/remains radioactive for long time; 2

[6]

33. (a)
Any two or three scores 1 mark
All 4 scores 2 marks
- down arrow
- marked as weight / gravity
- up arrow must be smaller / thinner
- marked as air resistance / upthrust / drag /
air friction (“resistance is insufficient”);;
(vertical by eye) 2

(b) forces are unbalanced / OWTTE showing comparison; (reject idea of


gravity increasing) 1

(c)


up and down arrows;
relative sizes correct;
(down/2(vertical by eye) 2

(d) acceleration = 0 AND forces now equal / reached maximum speed


(accept idea of reached terminal velocity without a = 0) ; 1

(e) line follows the shape of the curve but is always above the existing


line (except at 0,0); (reject if any downwards curve of graph) 1

[7]


34. (a) two vertical arrows; 2
arrows same size;

(b) 650 N; 1

(c) F = ma;
= 450 × 2;
= 900 (N); 3

(d) (i) resistive force increases; 1

(ii) zero; 1

[8]


35. (a) Any sensible suggestion e.g. atomic bomb; 1

(b) fission; 1

(c) (i) neutrons go on to fission three more nuclei;
which in turn produce more netrons so a chain reaction grows; 2

(ii) electrical; 1

(d) neutron no charge / alpha positive charge;
alpha would be repelled; 2

[7]


36. (a) (i) 100 – 87;
13% / 13; 2

allow addition of non-natural sources

(ii) idea of tracers / gamma camera / PET; 1

(iii) any one sensible answer;
• radiotherapy / brachytherapy / cancer treatment
• specific example of treatment 1

Accept:
clear indication of sterilisation of instruments for surgery / medical uses


thyroid, prostate, breast

Reject chemotherapy

(b) use made of nuclear data;


use made of other data;
valid comparison / conclusion; 3

ignore yes / no

[7]



Polesworth High School


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