1. 1 What was the English Civil War? 1a The world turned upside down Learning objectives



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1 Ruling



1.1 What was the English Civil War?

1.1a The world turned upside down

Learning objectives

  • To discover the main religious and political problems of the seventeenth century.

  • To weigh up the greatest problems facing kings in the seventeenth century.

Historical background

This lesson introduces some of the major problems facing the rulers in the seventeenth century which contributed to the outbreak of Civil War in 1642–1648. The religious divisions between Catholics and Protestants were inherited from the sixteenth century but intensified after the gunpowder plot of 1605 which encouraged people to see Catholics as a danger. Political problems for the monarch increased as parliament became more self-assured and desirous of greater independent power which clashed with the monarchy’s view of their power as absolute and divinely ordained. It would take considerable skill on the part of the monarch to prevent these issues from flaring up into conflict.



Teaching Activities and Learning Outcomes

Assessment opportunity

Using sources to establish the main religious and political problems in the seventeenth century.



Pupils will be able to

  • select relevant information from sources

  • prioritise factors for relative importance and be able to justify this in discussion

  • explain the main problems facing seventeenth century rulers and justify this with evidence.

Starter

Ask pupils to look at source a on page 8 of History in Progress – Book 2 and think about the questions related to it. The aim of this is to encourage pupils to think about the seventeenth century as a time of change and chaos. Once pupils have identified things that are peculiar about the picture, draw out from them how these are shown in the source, e.g. change and disorder in religion is shown by the upside-down church.



Development

Green task: This task encourages pupils to empathise with a particular character and to interpret evidence from different perspectives according to their character’s views. As suggested, this would work well as a paired activity to encourage appreciation of different viewpoints and to encourage discussion. Throughout the enquiries on the seventeenth century pupils will be asked to refer back to the character they created in this lesson, so it is worth them noting down clearly, perhaps as a profile with an illustration, their character for later reference. This can be done using Worksheet 1.1a.

Blue task: This develops tasks 1 and 2 and gives opportunities to show comprehension of sources and selection of relevant material. In this task pupils should justify their choices in writing.

Orange task: This develops findings from the earlier tasks; it asks pupils to prioritise the most important problems and justify their choices from the point of view of a seventeenth-century monarch.

Plenary

Pupils suggest what they think was the most serious problem affecting rulers in seventeenth-century England. They share their suggestion with a partner and compare reasons for their ideas.



ICT opportunities

History in Progress – LiveText CD 2: electronic activity

1.1 What was the English Civil War?

Worksheet 1.1a Civil War profile

Use this worksheet to keep a record of the character you are going to select in this lesson. You will need to refer back to what your character might think at various points during this unit. There is also space for you to add an illustration of what your character might look like.





Name:


Job:

Home town:

Church:

Three things that most concern your character about religion in England:

Three things that most concern your character about how the country is ruled:

Other notes about your character:



1.1 What was the English Civil War?

1.1b Charles I and the road to war

Learning objectives

  • To find out what the disagreements were between King Charles I and Parliament.

  • To make a judgement about whether it was Charles I’s poor decisions that led to war.

Historical background

King Charles I inherited many problems when he became king in 1625, as was highlighted in the previous lesson. This lesson aims to encourage pupils to understand how far Charles’ own actions made the situation worse. Charles became increasingly unpopular with parliament because of his toleration of his Catholic wife’s entourage at court which fuelled rumours that he was a secret Catholic, and because of his refusal to share power with parliament, since he remained convinced of his divine right to govern.



Teaching Activities and Learning Outcomes

Assessment opportunity

Understanding causation and appreciating why there might be different opinions about someone’s responsibility for an event.



Pupils will be able to

  • make decisions about the best options to avoid conflict with parliament

  • make a judgement about how sensible Charles’ actions were, in comparison with their own decisions

  • write persuasive pieces that justify and attack Charles’ actions.

Starter

Use source a on page 10 of History in Progress – Book 2 to encourage pupils to think about the division of England into two warring sides, and the types of people who might be on each side.



Development

Green task: Using either their own point of view or the point of view of the character they created in Lesson 1.1a, ask pupils to make decisions that they think would prevent war breaking out. Worksheet 1.1b provides a template in which to record their answers. Once pupils have done this, inform them of the real decisions Charles made. Use this revelation as the basis for a discussion about whether they think that Charles’ actions were wise.

Blue task: In the previous task pupils might have been critical of Charles’ decisions; in this task try to encourage them to appreciate why Charles made the decisions he did. Use this task to encourage empathy and for pupils to justify explanations. Try to bring out the fact that kings before Charles also believed in divine right – he was trying to safeguard what he saw as his God-given duty. Also highlight the personal and unprecedented nature of some of parliament’s demands, e.g. the demand for Strafford.

Orange task: Pupils design a persuasive propaganda leaflet from the point of view of parliament emphasising that Charles was to blame for the breakdown in relations that led to civil war.

Plenary

Class vote: Should Charles be held personally responsible for the war? Ask two or three pupils to explain why they have voted as they have.

Cross-curricular links

    Citizenship: Responsibilities of the ruler to share power and to rule in the best interests of the people.

ICT opportunities

History in Progress – LiveText CD 2: electronic activity

1.1 What was the English Civil War?

Worksheet 1.1b Charles I and the road to war

Fill in the table to show the actions you would have taken for each problem to try to stop war from breaking out. Later your teacher will tell you the real actions Charles took and you can mark these in the appropriate column of your table.



Problem 1, 1637: How should you punish your critics?

Options

Your decision and reasons for this

Charles’ real decision

a) Execute them.









b) Brand them.






c) Imprison them.






Problem 2, 1637: After the war, should Charles continue to demand ‘Ship Money’?

Options

Your decision and reasons for this

Charles’ real decision

a) Ask parliament for permission to collect taxes.







b) Collect ‘Ship Money’ without parliament’s consent.




c) Collect ‘Ship Money’ but reduce the amount.




Problem 3, 1640: What should the king do?

Options

Your decision and reasons for this

Charles’ real decision

a) Reject all of parliament’s demands.







b) Hand over Strafford to parliament.




c) Refuse to hand over Strafford.




Problem 4, 1642: What should the king do with the MPs who oppose him?

Options

Your decision and reasons for this

Charles’ real decision

a) Agree to parliament’s demands.







b) Arrest the five MPs on their way to the House of Commons.




c) Arrest the five MPs inside the House of Commons.




1.1 What was the English Civil War?

1.1c King or parliament?

Learning objectives

  • To find out about the Parliamentarians and the Royalists.

  • To evaluate sources to understand how propaganda was used by parliament during the Civil War.

Historical background

Civil War broke out in 1642 and lasted until 1648. Ordinary people were forced to make the difficult decision of whether they were for king or parliament. This decision was sometimes made for political or religious reasons, but more often and for most people it was based on where they lived and what side their employer supported. Both sides used propaganda to vilify the enemy to encourage recruits.



Teaching Activities and Learning Outcomes

Assessment opportunities

Evaluating sources for reliability.



Pupils will be able to

  • identify key reasons why people decided to fight for the king or parliament

  • compare and contrast sources that present different views of the same event

  • evaluate sources to establish their reliability.

Starter

Use the map and information on page 12 of History in Progress – Book 2 to generate a discussion about the key factors that influenced which side people chose to support. This could also be used as the basis for a discussion about whether these factors gave one side an initial advantage, e.g. the fact that parliament controlled the ports would make it easier for them to get new supplies.



Development

Green task: Pupils use sources a–c to establish general impressions of soldiers in the Civil War. Ask pupils to think about who produced the sources to encourage them to question their reliability.

Blue task: Pupils contrast the impression given in sources d and e about the attack on Cirencester, which encourages them to appreciate how and why one event can be presented in very different ways depending on its origin and purpose. Encourage pupils to think about the ‘nature, origin and purpose’ formula for evaluating sources. The extracts from the letters of Brilliana Harley (sources f–h) on page 15 are designed to build on these skills.

Orange task: Pupils explain how important propaganda was, then give advice on using primary sources to understand about the Royalists in the Civil War. This will encourage them to explain the importance of ‘nature, origin and purpose’ themselves. It would be worth encouraging pupils to include something about the positives of using primary sources as well, in order to avoid an overly negative response about the ‘dangers’ of primary sources.

Plenary

What were the Royalists really like? Ask pupils to suggest one thing they can be certain about, one thing they can be fairly sure about and one thing they are not at all sure about, and why. This will help to avoid the belief that because many of the primary sources were not reliable nothing can be learned from them.



Cross-curricular links

    Citizenship: Evaluating media stories for reliability and not just accepting propaganda at face value.

ICT opportunities

History in Progress – LiveText CD 2: electronic activity

1.1 What was the English Civil War?

1.1d Eyewitness: Naseby

Learning objectives

  • To find out what happened at the Battle of Naseby in 1645.

  • To identify, categorise and prioritise causes for parliament’s victory at Naseby.

Historical background

The early battles of the Civil War were indecisive. The turning point came with parliament’s victory at the Battle of Naseby in 1645. The first phase of the Civil War ended in 1646 when negotiations began with Charles I in custody. However, Charles escaped and encouraged a Scottish invasion of England which opened a second phase in the hostilities. War came to a close in 1648 with parliament’s final victory and the imprisonment of Charles I.



Teaching Activities and Learning Outcomes

Assessment opportunity

Identifying, categorising and establishing the relative importance of causal factors.



Pupils will be able to

  • identify causes for parliament’s victory from an annotated map

  • categorise causes for parliament’s victory

  • write a persuasive explanation to show what they consider to be the most important explanations for parliament’s victory.

Starter

Pupils study the map of the Battle of Naseby on page 16 of History in Progress – Book 2 and generate a list of their impressions of battles in the Civil War. They might focus on the types of weapons used, the tactics of fighting in pitched battles, etc.



Development

Green task: Pupils work in pairs to identify reasons why parliament might have won, using the map annotations. When feeding back in a class discussion, encourage pupils to come up with their own categories in which to group these factors, which will lead on to task 2 focusing on the categories of: leadership, training and skill of troops, effectiveness of recruitment and alliances.

Blue task: A development of task 1, which now focuses on categorising factors. Pupils should complete the table, then give each army a score for each category. Worksheet 1.1d supports this activity. Stress to pupils that their score may differ from their partner’s, but that this doesn’t matter as long as they can justify their score.

Orange task: Use the scores pupils recorded in their tables as a stimulus for discussion about what the most important category was in explaining parliament’s victory in the Civil War. Try to encourage pupils to defend their score by explaining it in discussion or to their partner. More able pupils should be encouraged to establish importance by explaining the relative significance of their chosen factor in comparison to another factor.

Plenary

Class vote: What do pupils think was the most important factor in parliament’s victory? Pupils should be ready to justify their opinions.

ICT opportunities

History in Progress – LiveText CD 2: electronic activity

1.1 What was the English Civil War?

Worksheet 1.1d Eyewitness: Naseby

Fill in the table below for both the Royalist and Parliamentary armies at the Battle of Naseby in 1645. For each category give each army a score out of 5:



Make sure you give a reason in each box to explain the score you have awarded.

Category

Royalists

Parliament


Quality of leadership








Size, training and discipline of troops









Raising men, money and supplies for their army








Making useful alliances









Discuss with a partner or another pair which of the four categories in the table above you think was most important in explaining why parliament won the Civil War. If you disagree with their choice, you need to convince them you are right, so make sure you have evidence to back up your choice.

1.1 What was the English Civil War?

1.1e Taking it further! How to punish a king?

Learning objectives

  • To find out the reasons why King Charles I was put on trial and executed in 1649.

  • To select evidence to support different arguments and to write a persuasive argument.

Historical background

It was only reluctantly that parliament decided on the necessity of executing Charles in 1649. This extreme position was reached due to the king’s failure to negotiate a settlement, his untrustworthiness in having escaped from custody in 1646 and his conduct during the Civil War. But many refused to recognise the legitimacy of parliament placing the king on trial. Indeed, Charles refused to defend himself at the trial claiming it was an illegal trial, since as king by divine right there was no authority on earth with the power to sit in judgement over him. When Charles was executed in January 1649 many were deeply shocked and Charles quickly became revered by many as a martyr king.



Teaching Activities and Learning Outcomes

Assessment opportunity

Selecting evidence in support of an argument; writing in order to persuade.



Pupils will be able to

  • select evidence to support different arguments about whether Charles should be executed

  • design a persuasive pamphlet setting down the arguments for the necessity of the execution.

Starter

Ask pupils to list some of the possible options that parliament might consider about what to do with Charles I now that parliament had won the Civil War. Their choices might include: imprison him permanently; execute him; exile him; replace him as king with his young son, Charles. Pupils might also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each option.



Development

  • Pupils to choose, or be allocated, one of the three differing points of view (shown in task 1) about what to do with Charles and to select evidence to support their argument. This could be used as the basis for discussion. This discussion could also be held as a class debate or as a mock-up of the trial of Charles himself. A vote or a jury could then decide their verdict.

  • Pupils should be able to design a persuasive pamphlet justifying the reasons why parliament did decide to execute the king. Pupils should stress the failure of Charles to compromise, his lack of trustworthiness and his behaviour in the Civil War which added to the suffering of the British people, to explain why he was accused of treason against the state.

Plenary

Encourage pupils to refer back to the character which they created at the start of the enquiry and to decide whether they would have been for or against the execution of the king. Pupils could share their opinions in pairs or in class discussion. Point out that most ordinary people were deeply shocked by the execution of the king.



Cross-curricular links

    Citizenship: The responsibility of the ruler to safeguard the rights and freedom of the people, and the consequences for failure to do so.

ICT opportunity

History in Progress – LiveText CD 2: electronic activity

1.1 What was the English Civil War?

Worksheet 1.1e What should happen to Charles I?

1 Imagine you have been asked to represent one group of MPs. You can select from the following.

  • Radical/Puritan MPs: they want to execute the king.

  • Moderate MPs: they want to remove Charles but keep a monarchy.

  • Royalist sympathiser MPs: they want to reinstate the king.

Which evidence would you select to make your case for what should happen to Charles?

2 Once you have selected your evidence, think about what your opponents might say. How will you respond to their arguments?

The Civil war was Charles’ fault. He made a deal with the Scots to invade England in 1648.

There are still many Royalists in England who might stir up rebellion and try to put the king back on the throne.

Charles escaped from prison in 1647. He might try again.

Charles ruled badly, taxing the people heavily and refusing to take advice from parliament.

Charles declared war on parliament in 1642.

Charles tried to get help from Holland and other foreign rulers during the Civil War.

Charles believes that he is king by divine right, and that it would be wrong for him to give any of his God-given power to parliament.

Parliament has been trying for years to make a deal with Charles I to share power more fairly. He always refuses.

Parliament has become power-hungry. Who’s to say it will do any better than the king?

Other monarchs in Europe might invade England to help Charles.

God will punish those who kill a king who is ruler by divine right.

Parliament pushed Charles into declaring war in the first place by making unreasonable demands.

According to the law the king is the most powerful judge in England, so it is illegal for parliament to put a king on trial and judge him.

Charles’ eldest son, also called Charles, is 19 years old and living in France. Although he fought for his father in the early years of the Civil War, we know little about his personality or political beliefs.



© Pearson Education Ltd 2008: History in Progress – Planning and Resource Pack 2




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