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CHAPTER 10

The Rise of a New Nation, 1815-1836

0Learning Objectives


After you read and analyze this chapter, you should be able to:

10. Describe the initiatives in domestic and foreign affairs undertaken during the presidencies of James Madison and James Monroe, as well as the expectations from which they arose.

20. Describe the emergence of the factory system of manufacturing and analyze the new social relationships it engendered.

30. Describe the widespread changes in American political institutions apparent by the middle of the 1820s and account for Andrew Jackson’s victory in 1828.

40. Explicate Jackson’s major policies and explain how they contributed to the formation of a new opposition political party.

0Chapter Outline0


I0. An “Era of Good Feelings”

A0. The “American System” and New Economic Direction

10. The Republicans had three domestic initiatives.

a0) Reestablishment of a national bank.

b0) Federal financing for roads and canals (vetoed by Madison).

c0) The Tariff of 1816.

20. Republicans sought to create a national market economy.

a0) They envisioned regional economic specialization in the West, South, and Northeast.

b0) A transportation network and a strong currency would link the three.

30. The Republicans won decisively in 1816.

a0) The popularity of their domestic plans led to sweeping victory.

B0. The Transportation Problem

10. National roads were built.

a0) Prior to the War of 1812, the United States had few long-distance roads.

b0) Road building depended on private entrepreneurs who built turnpikes.

c0) After the War of 1812, the government undertook to finance new roads.

d0) The federal government began construction of the Cumberland Road in 1815.

20. Canals reduced shipping costs.

a0) New York State began construction of the Erie Canal in 1817.

C0. Legal Anchors for New Business Enterprise

10. In Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819), Marshall ruled that state legislatures could not alter contracts.

20. In McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), the Court ruled that states could not tax federal institutions.

30. In Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), Marshall ruled that the federal government was superior to state governments in matters of interstate commerce.

D0. James Monroe and the Nationalist Agenda

10. The Monroe administration resolved remaining differences with England.

a0) The Rush-Bagot Agreement reduced the size of American and British fleets on the Great Lakes.

b0) The Convention of 1818 settled the issues of American fishing rights in the Atlantic, the border with Canada, and the occupation of Oregon.

20. In the Adams-Onís Treaty, the United States obtained Florida from Spain.

a0) Secretary of State Adams exploited the opportunity presented by Andrew Jackson’s unauthorized incursion into Florida to negotiate with Spain.

30. Britain proposed an alliance with the United States to prevent intervention by other European nations in Latin America.

a0) Many of Spain’s colonies had declared their independence; most European powers seemed ready to assist Spain.

40. The Monroe administration decided, instead, on unilateral action.

a0) Monroe announced that the United States would oppose intervention by Europeans in Latin America.

II0. Dynamic Growth and Political Consequences

A0. The Panic of 1819

10. Unsafe financial practices swept through the country after 1800.

a0) The Land Ordinance of 1800, liberalized by another ordinance in 1804, led to risky farm purchases.

b0) Land speculators extended credit to poor credit risks.

c0) Banks provided overly liberal credit.

20. International developments undermined the economy.

a0) The demand for U.S. goods fell in Europe.

b0) Gold and silver ceased flowing to Europe as Latin American nations became independent.

30. A six-year depression began in 1819.

a0) Tightened credit produced financial panic.

B0. Economic Woes and Political Sectionalism

10. Conflict over protective tariffs divided the nation’s three major sections.

a0) Northeastern manufacturing interests wanted high protective tariffs.

b0) Southerners, who relied on imported manufactured goods, opposed protective tariffs.

c0) The West supported higher tariffs in 1824 in return for northern support for Cumberland Road expenditures.

C0. The Missouri Compromise

10. Missouri’s application for statehood also became a sectional issue.

a0) Controversy over whether it would be a slave state or a free state was really about the political balance between the sections in Congress.

20. The Missouri Compromise sought to please both North and South.

a0) Missouri and Maine—one slave, one free—would become states.

b0) No slavery would be allowed above 36’ 30” in the Louisiana Purchase except in Missouri.

30. A second compromise approved Missouri’s constitution but not its restrictions on free blacks.

D0. New Politics and the End of Good Feelings

10. The election of 1824 reflected sectional divisions.

a0) Clay, Adams, and Crawford were each supported by different regions.

b0) Jackson, alone, attracted support in all regions.

20. The House of Representatives determined the election.

a0) Jackson won the popular vote but did not win a majority in the Electoral College.

b0) The House chose Adams after Clay threw his support to him.

30. The outcome ended the single-party system.

a0) Adams made Clay secretary of state.

b0) Jackson withdrew from the Republican Party, charging that Adams had won corruptly.

III0. The “New Man” in Politics

A0. Adams’s Troubled Administration

10. Adams did not prove to be popular as president.

a0) He refused to use political patronage to build support.

b0) His policies did not appear to have the interests of the common man at heart.

c0) The 1828 Tariff of Abominations established tariff rates that were unpopular with almost everyone.

B0. Democratic Styles and Political Structure

10. Political participation became more democratic between 1800 and 1830.

a0) Property requirements to vote and to serve in office were gradually eliminated.

b0) By 1828, nearly every state had adopted popular election for the members of the Electoral College.

20. Political organizations multiplied.

a0) In New York, Martin Van Buren pioneered the organization of disciplined and local organizations.

b0) Others in New York organized the Antimasonic Party.

C0. The Rise of King Andrew

10. By 1826, Van Buren organized the Democratic Party.

a0) He assembled a coalition of political leaders from all sections.

b0) The new party threw its support to Andrew Jackson.

20. Jackson trounced Adams in the election of 1828.

D0. Launching Jacksonian Politics

10. Jackson introduced the popular step of appointing officeholders for only four years.

a0) Use of patronage consolidated the Democratic Party’s control of power.

20. Jackson expanded the power of the presidency.

IV0. The Reign of King Andrew

A0. Jackson and the Bank

10. Many Americans disliked the Second Bank of the United States.

a0) Many saw it as benefiting the wealthy only.

b0) State bankers believed it exerted excessively restrictive control.

c0) Speculators and debtors preferred instability to the financial stability it brought.

20. Congress approved its recharter in 1832, rather than wait until 1836.

a0) Clay and Webster hoped thereby to embarrass Jackson.

30. Jackson went to war against the bank.

a0) His recharter veto was immensely popular.

b0) To weaken the bank, he ordered all federal funds withdrawn (and fired two Treasury secretaries who refused to do so).

c0) Treasury Secretary Taney withdrew funds to pay current bills and deposited new funds in “pet” banks.

40. The bank fought back.

a0) Its president, Nicholas Biddle, called in loans from state banks and raised interest rates.

b0) Economic instability increased as a result.

B0. Jackson and the West

10. Political calculation guided Jackson on the issue of federal support for internal improvements.

a0) He vetoed the Maysville Road bill to block Clay, benefit his own state, and retain support in the East.

20. He backed very low prices for public land.

C0. Jackson and the Indians

10. Americans viewed American Indians east of the Mississippi as hindering westward expansion.

20. After the War of 1812, the government pressured American Indians to move west of the Mississippi.

a0) This produced factionalism and conflict within the tribes.

30. Adams at times protected the Indians.

a0) He refused to go along with the proposed 1825 treaty marked by fraud.

b0) He supported settlers who illegally sought to take control of Winnebago lands in 1827.

40. Jackson’s policy emphasized aggressively moving all American Indians west of the Mississippi.

a0) The Indian Removal Act gave him authority to force Indian tribes to relocate.

b0) He employed military force against the Sauks.

c0) He refused to take action in behalf of Georgia’s Cherokees, despite the Supreme Court’s decision in Worcester v. Georgia.

d0) Jackson’s administration negotiated with a minority faction of the Cherokees to obtain title to all remaining Cherokee land east of the Mississippi (Treaty of New Echota).

e0) The government forcibly moved most of the Five Civilized Tribes west of the Mississippi.

f0) Part of the Seminole tribe went to war and successfully resisted forcible relocation.

D0. The Nullification Crisis

10. South Carolina led the South’s opposition to protective tariffs after passage of the Tariff of Abominations.

a0) Calhoun’s South Carolina Exposition and Protest argued for the right of a state to nullify federal acts.

20. Jackson opposed the doctrine of nullification.

a0) Following South Carolina’s decision to nullify the tariff, he sent warships and reinforced federal forts there.

b0) He asked Congress to enact the Force Bill.

30. The crisis was eventually resolved.

a0) Congress passed a lower tariff, and South Carolina rescinded its nullification of the previous tariff.

b0) South Carolina nullified the Force Bill, but Jackson did not respond to this provocation.


0Identifications


Identify the following items and explain the significance of each. While you should include any relevant historical terms, using your own words to write these definitions will help you better remember these items for your next exam.

10. John C. Calhoun

20. The South Carolina Exposition and Protest

30. Era of Good Feelings

40. American System

50. market economy

60. protective tariff

70. Tariff of 1816

80. blue laws

90. turnpike

100. Cumberland Road

110. Erie Canal

120. lock

130. aqueduct

140. Natchez Trace

150. payload

160. revenue stamps

170. McCullough v. Maryland

180. Gibbons v. Ogden

190. Fletcher v. Peck

200. Dartmouth College v. Woodward

210. tribute

220. demilitarization

230. Adams-Onís Treaty

240. unilateral

250. Monroe Doctrine

260. Napoleonic wars

270. installment

280. Panic of 1819

290. repossession

300. retaliatory tariff

310. bloc

320. Missouri Compromise

330. standard-bearer

340. dark horse

350. plurality

360. runoff election

370. Virginia Dynasty

380. Tariff of Abominations

390. electorate

400. Martin Van Buren

410. influence peddling

420. Masons

430. Antimasonic Party

440. Thomas Hart Benton

450. Democrats

460. public prosecutor

470. caricature

480. special interest

490. retrenchment

500. spoils system

510. Kitchen Cabinet

520. Nicholas Biddle

530. specie

540. pet banks

550. Bank War

560. public domain

570. survey

580. Five Civilized Tribes

590. federal Indian agents

600. Indian Removal Act

610. Black Hawk

620. George Guess (Sequoyah)

630. annul

640. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

650. Worcester v. Georgia

660. Treaty of New Echota

670. Trail of Tears

680. Osceola

690. nullificaton

700. Daniel Webster

0Multiple-Choice Questions


Select the correct answer.

10. The elements of the American System included

a0. protective tariffs.

b0. forts in the West to confront the British.

c0. construction of railroad lines as joint federal-state projects.

d0. All of these

20. The outcome of the presidential election of 1816

a0. was an endorsement of the national agenda of the Republican Party.

b0. saw a renewal of the Federalist Party.

c0. indicated that the Republicans were hopelessly split among several competing factions.

d0. None of these

30. The Convention of 1818 and the Adams-Onís Treaty were alike in that both

a0. warned European nations not to intervene in Latin America.

b0. resolved disputes with England that had been pending since the War of 1812.

c0. defined parts of the borders of the United States.

d0. brought the United States close to war with Spain.

40. Although the Monroe Doctrine carries the name of President Monroe, most of its ideas were those of

a0. Henry Clay.

b0. John C. Calhoun.

c0. James Madison.

d0. John Quincy Adams.

50. The causes of the Panic of 1819 included

a0. restrictive credit policies for almost two decades among land speculators.

b0. the discovery of new sources of gold in Latin America.

c0. the sense of crisis caused by Missouri’s application for statehood.

d0. postwar economic recovery in Europe.

60. Southerners opposed protective tariffs because they

a0. rejected the free trade ideas of the Republican Party.

b0. relied heavily on imported manufactured goods.

c0. believed that customs duties were unconstitutional.

d0. thought that customs duties were responsible for the Panic of 1819.

70. Missouri’s application for statehood and the election of 1824 were alike in that both

a0. hinged on the issue of westward expansion.

b0. were settled by compromises fashioned by President James Monroe.

c0. contributed to division and ill will within the nation.

d0. were resolved in ways that were satisfactory to all.

80. Unlike the Era of Good Feelings, the period between 1824 and 1836 was characterized by

a0. agreement among all regions about the need for high protective tariffs.

b0. a confrontational style exhibited by the president.

c0. unanimity with respect to the desirability of the Bank of the United States.

d0. protection of American Indians by the executive branch of the government.

90. Evidence of the growth of democratic participation in public affairs during the early nineteenth century includes

a0. overwhelming sentiment for granting the vote to women.

b0. the fact that fewer and fewer states maintained property qualifications for voting.

c0. a constitutional amendment for the popular election of senators.

d0. the enfranchisement of African Americans in all northern states.

100. American policy toward Native Americans in the period after the War of 1812

a0. recognized the legitimacy of Indian title to traditional lands.

b0. was one of extermination.

c0. attempted to remove eastern tribes to the trans-Mississippi West.

d0. tried to assimilate Indians into white society.

110. The Cumberland Road provides an early example of

a0. turnpike construction by private entrepreneurs.

b0. government involvement in the development of a transportation network.

c0. corruption and mismanagement by government bureaucrats.

d0. Andrew Jackson’s opposition to internal improvements.

120. The decision in Dartmouth College v. Woodward had an impact on the economy because it

a0. declared that slavery was constitutional.

b0. inspired Robert Fulton to apply steam power to shipping.

c0. gave colleges the right to admit whomever they wished as students.

d0. guaranteed the sanctity of contracts.

130. An important advantage offered by steamboat traffic over barges on the Mississippi River was that steamboats

a0. were inexpensive to build.

b0. were virtually accident-proof.

c0. allowed for shipping both upstream and downstream.

d0. were subsidized by government funding.

140. In McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden, John Marshall asserted that

a0. a state could not abridge a legal contract.

b0. the federal government could not regulate commerce on internal waterways.

c0. federal power was superior to that of the states.

d0. government financial support for transportation projects was unconstitutional.

150. In The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, John C. Calhoun argued that

a0. the individual states could nullify a national law.

b0. slavery was immoral.

c0. the Democratic Party was truly egalitarian.

d0. the South ought to industrialize its economy.


0Essay Questions


10. Despite the embarrassments experienced during much of the War of 1812 (including the burning of Washington, D.C.), American nationalists could take pride in the foreign-affairs achievements of the Monroe administration. Do you agree?

DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: There were indeed noteworthy achievements. The United States acquired Florida from Spain during this period. Moreover, settlements were reached with Great Britain over fishing rights, the border with Canada, and occupation of the Pacific Coast territory of Oregon.

You should concentrate, however, on the Monroe Doctrine. Explain how it arose, but emphasize how the United States chose to go it alone when it announced this vital principle of American foreign policy. By rejecting an alliance with Great Britain, Monroe pleased nationalists, who viewed the Monroe Doctrine as an assertion of AMERICAN will in foreign affairs.

If, on the other hand, you do not entirely agree that nationalists could take pride in the Monroe administration’s achievements, you could indicate that Europeans and Latin Americans regarded the Monroe Doctrine as an idle statement, one that the United States could hardly at the time enforce by itself.

20. Most Americans would probably agree that laissez-faire capitalism—with neither help from nor hindrance by government—built the American economy. Is this, in your opinion, an accurate generalization when it is applied to the early nineteenth century?

DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: During the early part of the nineteenth century, government did not regulate (that is, hinder) business enterprise. On the other hand, there is ample evidence that government at both the federal and the state levels assisted economic development. The generalization would therefore be difficult to defend in its entirety. Examples of government assistance that you should discuss include:

The Second Bank of the United States, chartered by Congress to expand the availability of credit and to help stabilize the currency

Protective tariffs, which stimulated the growth of domestic industry

Construction of transportation arteries at government expense (the Cumberland Road and the Erie Canal in New York State)

In addition to these examples of overt assistance, you should discuss the supportive climate for business initiative encouraged by the Supreme Court. John Marshall’s decisions in such cases as Dartmouth College v. Woodward and Gibbons v. Ogden reassured entrepreneurs that it was safe for them to conduct business.

30. Andrew Jackson carried the power of the presidency to new heights. Explain how he did so.

DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: At almost every turn, Jackson behaved as a forceful activist and engaged in direct confrontation with his opponents. The combination of these two qualities made the presidency unusually powerful in his hands.

To document Jackson’s activist approach and his confrontational style, the following should be included in your discussion:

Indian policy: Jackson’s Indian removal policy and actions and his blunt refusal to implement the Supreme Court’s decision in Worcester v. Georgia

The nullification controversy: Jackson’s public confrontation with John C. Calhoun and his dramatic preparations to use military force against South Carolina

The Bank of the United States: Jackson went to war against the institution, vetoing its recharter, ordering the withdrawal of federal funds, and issuing the Specie Circular before he left office.

Use of the veto power: In addition to the bank veto, Jackson vetoed the Maysville Road Bill. His greater use of the veto than any of his predecessors exemplifies the increased power that he brought to the office of president.

0Map Exercises


Examine Map 10.2 in your textbook to answer the following questions about the bitter presidential election of 1824.

10. What region did nearly all of John Quincy Adams’s support come from? What factors might explain that?

20. Whom did Kentucky support? Why?

30. Were sectional divisions as strong in 1824 as they had been four years before during the controversy over Missouri? Less strong? About the same strength?

40. Which candidate appears to have had the widest national appeal?

0Individual Choices

0John C. Calhoun


To answer the following questions, consult the Individual Choices section at the beginning of the chapter.

10. Briefly describe the nation’s economy from the end of the War of 1812 until the Panic of 1819.

20. Why was Calhoun considered a political prodigy?

30. Explain Calhoun’s view of the nation’s sectional interests. Why did they concern him?

40. Analyze the significance of The South Carolina Exposition and Protest.

50. Why did Calhoun’s decision to apply his considerable political talent to the cause of sectionalism help bring the nation to the very brink of war? How was civil war avoided—at least in 1832?

60. Evaluate Calhoun’s change of heart. Do you think you would have made the same changes in your views and opinions if you were Calhoun? Justify your answers.

0Individual Voices

0Examining a Primary Source: John C. Calhoun Justifies the Principle of Nullification


To answer the following questions, consult the Individual Voices section at the end of the chapter.

10. What position did Calhoun hold in February 1833?

20. What is the significance of Calhoun’s assertion that the federal union is a “union of states” and “not of individuals”?

30. How does Calhoun’s description of the process by which the Constitution was ratified justify his claims concerning the rights of a statewide convention to declare federal laws null and void?

40. On what basis does Calhoun justify the expulsion of federal authorities from a state? What assumptions is he making about federal rights versus states’ rights?
RUBRIC: As you complete the following rubric, think about why both the federal government and the state governments would have an interest in claiming authority in each of these areas. In your opinion, which level of government does the best job in each area?

AREAS OF STATE/FEDERAL CONFLICT

INTEREST(S) OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

INTEREST(S) OF STATE GOVERNMENT(S)

RESOLUTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



0Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions


10. a Protective tariffs would stimulate the development of industry according to the proponents of the American System. See page 274

b. The American System was a program for economic development, not for territorial expansion or diplomatic initiatives with other nations. See pages 272-274.

c. The American System was enunciated immediately after the War of 1812; transportation initiatives at that time involved ships, roads, and canals. See page 272-274.

d. Only “a” is correct.

20. a Republican James Monroe received 184 electoral votes to Federalist Rufus King’s 34 votes; the Republicans won more than 75 percent of both houses of Congress. See page 274

b. The Federalist Party was in decline after the Hartford Convention, lost the presidency by a wide margin in 1816, and won only about 25 percent of the seats in Congress. See page 274

c. The period is called the Era of Good Feelings because political divisiveness was not present. See page 274

d. Only “a” is the correct choice.

30. c The Convention of 1818 established the border between the Louisiana Purchase and Canada at the 49th parallel. The Adams-Onis Treaty resolved the Florida border issue by ceding Florida to the United States. See pages 278-279.

a. The Monroe Doctrine warned European nations not to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. See pages 278-279.

b. The Convention of 1818 resolved outstanding problems with England, while the Adams-Onis treaty was with Spain. See pages 278-279.

d. The first was an agreement with Britain. The second resolved problems between the United States and Spain over Florida. See pages 278-279.

40. d Secretary of State Adams suggested unilateral action by the United States to warn the nations of Europe not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere. He argued successfully against an alliance with Britain for the purpose of keeping other Europeans away. See page 279.

a. See page 279.

b. See page 279.

c. See page 279.

50. d The demand for American goods fell in Europe after 1815. See pages 279-281.

a. Easy credit had long fueled excessive land speculation. See pages 279-281.

b. The supply of Latin American gold contracted as countries there gained their independence. See pages 279-281.

c. Missouri’s application for statehood caused a political rather than an economic crisis. See pages 279-281.

60. b In return for their cotton exports to Britain, they purchased English-manufactured goods. The latter would cost them more because of a protective tariff and might lead Britain to introduce a tariff on cotton imports from the South. See page 274.

a. Free trade would have meant no protective tariffs. By supporting a protective tariff, the Republican Party did not endorse free trade.

c. The protective tariff was not questioned on constitutional grounds.

d. Contemporaries tended to blame the Panic of 1819 on the National Bank, not on customs duties. See pages 280-281.

70. c Missouri’s application for statehood pitted the North against the South. The election outraged Andrew Jackson and his many supporters and shattered the Republican Party. See pages 281-283 (Map 10.1 for Missouri’s location and Map 10.2).

a. Unlike the westward expansion that raised Missouri’s population, entitling it to apply for statehood, the election of 1824 had nothing to do with westward expansion. Andrew Jackson, winner of the largest number of votes, attracted followers in all sections. See pages 281-283 (Map 10.1 for Missouri’s location and Map 10.2).

b. Henry Clay fashioned the Missouri Compromise, and he played the key role in the House of Representative’s choice of Adams as president in 1824. See pages 281-283 (Map 10.1 for Missouri’s location and Map 10.2).

d. Although the Missouri controversy was settled by compromise, the outcome of the election left Jackson and his supporters furious, bringing the Era of Good Feelings to an end. See pages 281-283 (Map 10.1 for Missouri’s location and Map 10.2).

80. b Andrew Jackson engaged in a great deal of confrontation on many fronts and in connection with many issues. See examples throughout the chapter.

a. Southerners vigorously opposed the tariff in 1829, and South Carolina’s attempt to nullify it led to a great national controversy. See page 297.

c. Jackson and his supporters opposed the Bank; his opponents supported it. See pages 290-291.

d. Presidents Adams (in 1827) and Jackson (in the 1830s) deployed the army in support of white interlopers and to forcibly remove Indian tribes to the West. See pages 292-297.

90. b In 1800, all states but three had real property requirements; by 1830, the number had grown to ten. See pages 285.

a. Sentiment in favor of expanding the electorate meant dropping real property requirements to vote, but for white men only. See pages 283-287.

c. Unlike a more democratic way to choose the Electoral College, direct election of senators was not among the proposed democratic reforms. See pages 283-287.

d. Enfranchisement of African Americans was not among the proposed democratic reforms. See pages 283-287.

100. c The removal policy was implemented in the Northwest and in the South. See page 293.

a. In the Northwest, for example, federal troops assisted settlers who violated the Prairie du Chien treaties and occupied Indian lands. See page 293.

b. Although aggressive toward the Indians, the policy was not genocidal. See page 293.

d. The preference was for moving the Indians out of areas into which whites were moving. See page 293.

110. b It was an example of the American System in action. See pages 272-274.

a. The road was financed by the federal government. See pages 272-274.

c. There is no evidence that corruption accompanied its construction. See pages 272-274.

d. It was developed before Jackson emerged as a political leader. Jackson opposed construction of a different road. See pages 272-274.

120. d The Supreme Court ruled that the legislature could not alter its charter because the latter was a contract. See page 277.

a. The case had nothing to do with slavery. See page 277.

b. Fulton’s experiments (1807) predated the case (1819). See page 277.

c. The case had to do with changes that affected the College’s board of trustees, not its students. See page 277.

130. c See page 276.

a. There is no evidence that this played a part in their competitive edge. See page 276.

b. See page 276.

d. There is no evidence that the government assisted private enterprise in the construction of river steamboats. See page 276.

140. c In the McCulloch case, the Court ruled that a state could not tax a federal institution. In the Gibbons case, the Court found that Congress’s authority in interstate commerce superseded that of New York State. See page 276.

a. This was the Supreme Court’s ruling, instead, in Dartmouth College v. Woodward. The Constitution protected contracts from interference by state legislatures. See page 276.

b. See page 276.

d. Neither case involved government support for internal improvements projects. See page 276.

150. a Calhoun formulated this doctrine in order to attack the so-called Tariff of Abominations. See page 297.

b. Calhoun staunchly defended all the South’s interests. See page 297.

c. Calhoun’s pamphlet was about the constitutionality of protective tariffs. See page 297.

d. Calhoun wrote as a defender of the South’s agricultural economy. See page 297.



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